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文法講座十:instead;instead of;rather than

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  • 2012-10-20
  • 文法講座 > 文法講座十:instead;instead of;rather than


    instead; instead of; rather than 的用法如下:
    1. 介係詞 「而不是…」instead of,後方需搭配「名詞」或「動名詞」( Ving )。可和 rather than 互換。instead of 和 rather than 放句首時,記得打逗號。
    2. 「而不是…」rather than 可當「連接詞」,連接形態和詞性對等的字詞,如兩個名詞、兩個動詞或兩個副詞。rather than 也可和 instead of 一樣當「介係詞」使用,後方搭配「名詞」或「動名詞」( Ving )。
    3. 「而不是…」rather than 連接兩個主詞時,動詞需和「第一個主詞」一致。 
    4. 副詞「反而;卻」instead,常放在「句首」或「句尾」。  


    例句:Jack 將去坐牢,而不是付罰款。
    Instead of paying the fines, Jack will go to jail.
    [介係詞] [動名詞 Ving]
    Rather than paying the fines, Jack will go to jail.
    [介係詞]  [動名詞 Ving]
    Rather than pay the fines, Jack will go to jail.
    [連接詞]   [動詞1]                [動詞2]
    Jack won't pay the fines. Instead, he will go to jail.
                           [副詞「反而」放句首,打逗號]
    Jack won't pay the fines. He will go to jail instead.
                                                     [副詞「反而」放句尾]   

    例句:每個人都渴望成功而非失敗。
    Everyone is hungry for success instead of failure.
                             [名詞1] [介係詞] [名詞] 
    Everyone is hungry for success  rather than failure.
                                       [名詞1]   [介係詞]   [名詞2]
    Everyone is hungry for success  rather than failure.
                                       [名詞1]   [連接詞]   [名詞2]
    例句:食品營養標示常被放在食品包裝的一角,而非正中央。
    Nutrition labels are usually placed in one corner of the food packaging  rather than in the center.                               [地方副詞1]                                   [連接詞]         [地方副詞2]
    例句:這個案子是由 Kevin 負責,而不是我。
    Kevin rather than I is in charge of the project.
    [主詞1] [連接詞] [主詞2] [動詞需和第一個主詞一致]

    同場加映網友提問的特殊句型 —「寧願…而不願…」

    「寧願…而不願…」句型中的 rather than 不放句首,常用的表達方式如下:
    1. prefer to V原 rather than V原: 
      當中的to為「不定詞」to,且rather than為「連接詞」,故左右對稱,兩個動作都為「動詞原形」。
    2. would rather V原 than V原:
      would rather 兩字意指「寧願…」。由於有助動詞「would」,所以句中兩個動作都為「動詞原形」。
    3. would V原 rather than V原: 
      would rather 兩字意指「寧願 …」。由於有助動詞「would」,所以句中兩個動作都為「動詞原形」。
    例句︰她寧願貧窮,而不願用不誠實的手段賺錢。
    She prefers to remain poor rather than earn money by dishonest means.
    She would rather remain poor than earn money by dishonest means.
    She would remain poor rather than earn money by dishonest means.
     
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