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文法講座十九:「包含;組成」consist of / compose / contain / comprise / constitute / include

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  • 2012-11-19
  • consist of / compose / contain / comprise / constitute / include 這幾個動詞的意思都是「包含;組成」,但確切用法總令人昏頭轉向,接下來以「主動」和「被動」用法為主軸,一一加以說明。
    1. 主動語態:A 由 B 組成。
    2. A [大團體] consist of B [小團體]
      A [大團體] comprise B [小團體]
      A [大團體] contain B [小團體]
      A [大團體] include B [小團體]
      B [小團體] compose A [大團體]
      B [小團體] constitute A [大團體]

    3. 被動語態:A 由 B 組成。
    4. A [大團體] be made up of B [小團體]
      A [大團體] be composed of  B [小團體]
      “ consist of” 和 “comprise” 沒有被動式。

    ■  例句:這本小說由10個章節組成。
    The novel consists of ten chapters.
    The novel comprises ten chapters.
    The novel contains ten chapters.
    The novel includes ten chapters.
    Ten chapters composes the novel.
    Ten chapters constitutes the novel.
    The novel is made up of ten chapters.
    The novel is composed of ten chapters.
    ■  請選出正確的句子:
    A. The prize consists a cheque for NT$100, 000, a medal and a certificate.
    B. The ad made up of photos of many political leaders kissing draws lots of attention.
    C. The team is consisted of three Chinese and three Japanese.
    D. These twelve women are believed to comprise the jury.
    解答:B
      A 選項,句子結構分析如下:
      獎品包括一張十萬元支票、ㄧ個獎牌和ㄧ張證書。
      The prize consists a cheque for NT$100, 000, a medal and a certificate.
      [大團體]                                  [小團體] 
      句中可用的主動寫法有:
      大團體 consist of / comprise / contain / include 小團體

      句中可用的被動寫法有:
      大團體 is made up of / is composed of 小團體
      綜合以上分析可知,需將句中 “consists” 改成 “ consists of”。

      B 選項,句子結構分析如下:
      這個由許多著名政治領袖親吻的照片拼貼組合而成的廣告,引來軒然大波。
      The ad made up of photos of many political leaders kissing draws lots of attention.
      [主詞] [形容詞]                                                                [動詞] 
      剖析句子演進過程:
      [兩個句子時]
      The ad is made up of photos of many political leaders kissing.
      [大團體]                     [小團體] 
      The ad draws lots of attention. 
      [以關係代名詞將兩句併成ㄧ句]
      The ad which is made up of photos of many political leaders kissing draws lots of attention.
      = The ad which consists of photos of many political leaders kissing draws lots of attention. 
      [去掉關係代名詞,改成以 Ving 或  p.p. 分詞當形容詞]
      從句中「被動式」is made up of 可知,去掉關係代名詞後,應用 p.p. 分詞當形容詞。從句中「主動語態」consists of 可知,去掉關係代名詞後,應用 Ving 分詞當形容詞。
      The ad made up of photos of many political leaders kissing draws lots of attention.
      = The ad consisting of photos of many political leaders kissing draws lots of attention.   
      C 選項,句子結構分析如下:
      The team is consisted of three Chinese and three Japanese.
      [大團體]                                    [小團體] 
      consisted of 沒有被動式。consist of 的用法如下:
      大團體 consist of 小團體

      所以 C 選項句子寫法應改成:
      The team consists of three Chinese and three Japanese.
      = The team is made up of three Chinese and three Japanese.
      = Three Chinese and three Japanese constitute the team.
      D 選項,句子結構分析如下:
      據說陪審團是由這 12 個女人組成。
      These twelve women are believed to comprise the jury.
      [小團體]                                                      [大團體] 
      comprise 的用法如下:
      大團體 comprise 小團體

      所以 D 選項句子寫法應改成:
      The jury is believed to comprise these twelve women.
      = These twelve women are believed to compose the jury
     
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