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文法講座二十七:三花 spend/take/cost 加上 pay

spend (花)、take (花)、cost (花)、pay (付$) 這四個特殊動詞的用法如下:
人花了多少錢在…東西上: 人 spend $ on 東西
人花了多少時間在做…事: 人 spend 時間 (in) Ving
( in 為介係詞,所以後方需搭配動名詞 Ving。
某事/物花了某人多少時間: 事/物 take 人 時間
某事/物花了某人多少時間: It takes 人 時間 + to V原 (不定詞補充說明虛主詞 it )
某事/物花了某人多少錢: 事 / 物 cost 人 $
某事/物花了某人多少錢: It costs 人 $ + to V原 (不定詞補充說明虛主詞 it )
某人為了某物付了多少錢: 人 pay $ for 物

例句:Ted 昨天花 300 元買一本書。
Ted paid three hundred dollars for a book yesterday.
Ted spent three hundred dollars on a book yesterday.
The book cost Ted three hundred dollars yesterday.
It cost Ted three hundred dollars to buy a book yesterday.
例句:買書花了 Ted 一小時。
Ted spent one hour (in) buying a book.
Buying a book took Ted one hour.
It took Ted one hour to buy a book. 
請選出正確句子:
A. How long do you take to commute to school? 
B. It could cost scientists several years to work out the myth. 
C. I spent five minutes to explain what happened to Liz.
D. Who do you think should pay for dinner on the first date? 
解答:D

A 選項,通勤上學花你多少時間?
由於主詞為人(you),故應搭配 spend 時間 (in) Ving。正確寫法為:
How long do you spend commuting to school? 或
How long does it take you to commute to school? 
虛主詞 it 代替「通勤上學」這件事,補充說明虛主詞得用 to V原。事情「花」時間,需搭配動詞 take (花)。

B 選項,科學家得花上數年才能解開這個謎。
事「花」時間得用 take。所以 B 選項應改成:
It could take scientists several years to work out the myth. 或
Scientists have to spend several years working out the myth.

C 選項,我花了五分鐘向麗茲解發生了甚麼事。
人「花」時間做…得用spend 時間 (in) Ving。正確寫法為:
I spent five minutes explaining what happened to Liz. 或
It took me five minutes to explain what happened to Liz. 

D 選項,你認為第一次約會時,誰該付晚餐錢?
“do you think” 為插入語,可刪除成為:Who should pay for dinner on the first date? 動詞 pay 的用法為:人 pay $ for 物。

文法講座 248613676557739943
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