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BE AWARE: YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT!

Posted on
  • 2012-11-26
  • 前一陣子,美牛進口吵得沸沸湯湯,大家聞世紀絕症「狂牛症」色變。真如總統所說,人類因食用牛內臟和帶骨牛肉而感染狂牛症的機率比嚼檳榔或抽香菸得癌症的機率還低嗎?還是如衛生署所說,得病風險小於百萬分之一,就應視為零風險呢?請跟著大學堂一起挖掘美國大型酪農業背後「不能說真相」。
    註:右側為正常的人腦,左側為感染狂牛症後的人腦,左側明顯比右側小,且色澤較灰,結構鬆散。
    《 沉默的食物 》

    字彙 Flashcards :使用說明
    • 精選多益 / 全民英檢中高級 / 托福單字片語

    prominence (n) 名聲
    explosive (adj) 爆炸性的;迅速的
    outbreak (n) 爆發
    epidemic (n) 流行病
    transmit (v) 傳播;傳染
    livestock (n) 家畜
    routinely (adv) 例行地
    protein (n) 蛋白質
    supplement (n) 營養劑;補品
    inclusive of N:包括
    contaminated (adj) 被汙染的
    spinal column (n) 脊柱
    intestine (n) 腸
    harbor (v) 躲藏;包庇
    concentration (n) 集中;濃度
    infectious (adj) 有傳染性的
    agent (n) 媒介
    exclusion (n) 排除;杜絕
    risky (adj) 危險的
    bovine tissue (n) 牛的組織
    cannibalism (n) 吃人肉;同類相食
    dairy (n) 乳品業
    slaughterhouse (n) 屠宰場
    waste (n) 廢棄物
    manure (n) 肥料;糞便 = feces (n)
    prevail (v) 盛行;普遍
    herbivore (n) 草食性動物
    carnivore (n) 肉食性動物
    cannibal (n) 同類相食的動物
    prion (n) 感染性蛋白質

    sponge-like (adj) 像海綿般的
    complete (v) 完成
    circuit (n) 巡迴;迴圈
    spread (n) 擴散;傳播
    fatal (adj) 致命的
    incurable (adj) 無法治癒的
    expenditure (n) 花費 = cost (n)
    poultry (n) 家禽
    separate (v) 分開
    replacer (n) 替代品
    contain (v) 包含
    spray-dried (adj) 乾粉狀的
    source (n) 來源
    taste panel (n) 試吃小組
    affect (v) 影響
    subsequent (adj) 後續的
    tender (adj) 柔軟的
    attribute (n) 特質;價值
    scrutiny (n) 審查
    slaughter (v) 殺
    invigorate (v) 振興;刺激
    loophole (n) (法律) 漏洞
    regulation (n) 規章制度
    infer (v) 推論
    herd (n) 獸群
    contract (v) 感染 = infect (v)
    as long as (conj) 只要…
    food chain (n) 食物鏈
    ration (n) 口糧
    render (v) 熬出油



    Mad cow disease, or BSE, first rose to global prominence in the 1990s with an explosive outbreak in the UK. The epidemic was __   1 __    when livestock routinely were fed protein supplements inclusive of contaminated cow spinal columns, brain tissues and intestines, which __   2 __    the highest concentrations of infectious agents. Since then, the World Health Organization has called for the __   3 __    of the riskiest bovine tissues from food supply and all animal feed. However, in the US, high-tech cannibalism — the use of performance-enhancing dairy feed __   4 __    protein comes from slaughterhouse waste, blood and manure to feed farm animals — still prevails. This common practice has forced natural herbivores like cows to be carnivores and cannibals. In this way, BSE-inducing prions — the infectious protein that causes brain cells to die and form sponge-like holes in the brain — may complete the circuit __   5   __ for the spread of the fatal, incurable disease.

    To the cattle industry, feed expenditures remain the single largest cost. While dairy producers can use corn or soybeans as protein feed supplements, poultry waste and slaughterhouse by-products are way __   6  __  cheaper. Not surprisingly, most newborn calves, separated from their mothers immediately after birth, are fed milk replacer, which mainly contains spray-dried cattle blood as a cheap source of protein. Besides, as few as one thousand chickens can make tons of feces enough to feed a growing calf year-round. According to taste panels, the blood-based milk and manure don’t seem to __   7   __ the taste of subsequent meat; beef from steers fed bird dropping ___   8 __    in fact more juicy and tender. Though dairy farmers argue the manure’s feed value and environmental attributes, the practice simply can’t stand up to scientific _ 9 _ .

    The latest discovery of mad cow disease in a California dairy farm this April was a stroke of __   10  __ . Nearly 34 million cattle are slaughtered every year in the US. Of those, only 40,000 are tested for BSE. That’s about one in every thousand animals. If we tested 80,000, would we find two? Let’s hope this new case will invigorate consumer campaigns to close the loopholes in feed regulations.

    A. affect B. is C. exclusion D. transmitted E. scrutiny
    F. blamed G. whose H. luck I. harbor J. much
    聽力請先下載擴充軟體:安裝方式說明

    Mad cow disease, or BSE, first rose to global prominence in the 1990s with an explosive outbreak in the UK. The epidemic was transmitted when livestock routinely were fed protein supplements inclusive of contaminated cow spinal columns, brain tissues and intestines, which harbor the highest concentrations of infectious agents. Since then, the World Health Organization has called for the exclusion of the riskiest bovine tissues from food supply and all animal feed. However, in the US, high-tech cannibalism — the use of performance-enhancing dairy feed whose protein comes from slaughterhouse waste, blood and manure to feed farm animals — still prevails. This common practice has forced natural herbivores like cows to be carnivores and cannibals. In this way, BSE-inducing prions — the infectious protein that causes brain cells to die and form sponge-like holes in the brain — may complete the circuit blamed for the spread of the fatal, incurable disease.

    To the cattle industry, feed expenditures remain the single largest cost. While dairy producers can use corn or soybeans as protein feed supplements, poultry waste and slaughterhouse by-products are way much cheaper. Not surprisingly, most newborn calves, separated from their mothers immediately after birth, are fed milk replacer, which mainly contains spray-dried cattle blood as a cheap source of protein. Besides, as few as one thousand chickens can make tons of feces enough to feed a growing calf year-round. According to taste panels, the blood-based milk and manure don’t seem to affect the taste of subsequent meat; beef from steers fed bird dropping is in fact more juicy and tender. Though dairy farmers argue the manure’s feed value and environmental attributes, the practice simply can’t stand up to scientific scrutiny.

    The latest discovery of mad cow disease in a California dairy farm this April was a stroke of luck. Nearly 34 million cattle are slaughtered every year in the US. Of those, only 40,000 are tested for BSE. That’s about one in every thousand animals. If we tested 80,000, would we find two? Let’s hope this new incident will invigorate consumer campaigns to close the loopholes in feed regulations.

    Q: What can’t the reader infer from this article?
    A. Mad cow disease is most commonly spread in herds through contaminated feed.
    B. Humans can contract BSE by eating brain or spinal tissues from infected cattle.
    C. As long as the infected cow doesn’t enter the human food chain, all beef and dairy supplies are safe.
    D. Many cattle are fattened on rations that include manure and rendered slaughterhouse waste.

    建議做完聽力和閱讀後, 打開播放器, 跟著一起朗讀文章, 熟悉發音和語調。

    文意選填解答:
    1. D 2. I 3. C 4. G 5. F
    6. J 7. A 8. B 9. E 10. H

    1. 從文意可知,有了「汙染」( contaminated) 源,「傳染病」( epidemic ) 易「傳播擴散」( transmitted )。
    2. 關代 which 代替前面說過的名詞,句型結構分析如下:
    Contaminated cow spinal columns, brain tissues and intestines    2     the …
    [主詞]                                              [動詞]
    從文意可知,腦和脊髓這些部位「儲藏」( harbor) 最多感染源。
    3. 介係詞 of 左右兩側都應搭配「名詞」,故第3格為「名詞」。從文意可知,最危險 ( the riskiest ) 的因素應趕緊「排除」( exclusion )。
    4. 從結構可知,「飼料的」蛋白質來自於屠宰場的廢棄物,第4格應填「物所有格」性質的關代 whose 才可連接句子 。
    5. 名詞 circuit 後應搭配第5格「形容詞」。從文意可知,狂牛症的「傳播」( spread )該「怪」這個惡性迴圈。因「迴圈」不會主動執行「責怪」( blame ) 這動作,故應用「過去分詞」當形容詞。
    6. 加強比較級「….多了」,可在比較級前加上 much/ a lot/ far/ even。
    7. 本題考點為「不定詞」to + 動詞原形,故第7格為「動詞原形」。從倒數第二行「吃雞糞長大的牛隻肉質多汁」可知 雞糞當飼料沒「影響」( affect ) 肉的味道。  
    8. 句型結構分析如下:
    beef    from steers fed bird dropping    8    in fact more juicy and tender.
    [主詞]  [修飾 beef 的形容詞]      [動詞]
    主詞 beef 為「不可數名詞」,視為「單數」,應搭配第8格「單數動詞」。「主詞和動詞一致」的相關概念解說請見 大學堂文法講座 14
    9. 「形容詞」scientific 後方需搭配「名詞」,故第9格為「名詞」。從文意可知,這種飼養法禁不起科學「檢驗」( scrutiny )。
    10. 介係詞 of 後方應搭配「名詞」,故第 10 格為「名詞」。從文意可知,在牛隻進入食物供給鏈前檢出狂牛症,實屬「幸運」( luck )。  

    閱讀解答:C
    小心! 吃什麼就變成什麼。

    1990 年間,英國首度爆發狂牛症 (又稱BSE) 疫情,疫情嚴重備受全球關注。當牲畜常吃由被污染的牛脊柱,腦組織和腸子所製成的蛋白質營養劑時,因為這些部位的傳染物質濃度最高,狂牛症也隨之傳播開來。從那時起,世界衛生組織已呼籲將危險的牛組織從糧食供給和所有動物飼料中排除。然而,在美國,高科技同類互食 — 使用促進生長的乳牛飼料 (飼料中的蛋白質來自屠宰廠廢棄物、血液和糞便) 來餵養農場動物 — 仍然盛行。這種常見的做法迫使像牛這種天生草食性的動物變成了肉食性和同類相殘的動物。如此一來,引發狂牛症的 prion,一種導致腦细胞死亡並在腦內形成海绵狀孔洞的傳染性蛋白質,便可完成致命且無藥可醫的狂牛症散播迴圈。

    對養牛業而言,飼料支出仍占成本最大宗。雖然酪農業者可用玉米或大豆作為蛋白質營養劑,但家禽廢棄物和屠宰場的副產品價格顯然便宜許多。不足為奇地,大多數新生牛犢,出生後隨即和母親分離,且被餵食以乾燥牛血做為廉價蛋白質來源的母乳替代品。此外,光一千隻雞便能生產足以養活一隻發育中的小牛一整年的成噸糞便。根據試吃小組表示,以血當基底的牛奶和雞屎似乎不影響牛肉日後的風味;而餵食雞屎的肉牛所產的牛肉,實際口感更顯美味多汁。儘管酪農業者為糞便的飼養價值和環保價值辯護,但這種飼養法根本禁不起科學檢驗。

    今年四月加州最新一起狂牛症案例的發現,全憑運氣。美國每年屠宰近3千4百萬頭牛,當中只有4萬頭經過狂牛症檢測,即每一千頭只挑一頭做檢驗。若我們檢驗8萬頭牛,會不會發現兩個狂牛症案例呢?希望這個新案例可引發消費者活動,終結飼養法規的諸多漏洞。

    問題:讀者無法從文章中推論出下列何者?
    A. 狂牛症最常透過被汙染的飼料在獸群中傳播擴散。
    B. 人類可能因食用感染狂牛症的牛隻腦脊隨組織而罹病。
    C. 只要感染狂牛症的牛隻未進入人類食物鏈,所有牛肉和乳製品將無安全上的疑慮。
    D. 許多牛隻靠吃內含糞便和熬煮過的屠宰場廢棄物製成的口糧增胖。

    異常蛋白質 prion 小檔案
    • 1. prion 不是細菌,不是病毒,也不是寄生蟲,而是種可讓腦部變成像海綿般空洞化的異常蛋白質。
    • 2. prion 存在發病的牛腦、骨髓、內臟等部位,屠宰時若沒用空氣槍把這些部位吸乾淨,牛肉也容易因被污染而帶毒,其中絞肉、內臟更是高風險物質,帶骨牛肉也不保險。 以牛肉漢堡為例,牛絞肉是重要原料,但牛絞肉是所有部位剩餘的肉末大集結,可能混有帶毒的骨髓、淋巴、神經組織。
    • 3. prion 被埋在土壤中三年還有活性,要用攝氏一千度高溫,連續燒三十分鐘才能殺死。動物若吃下被狂牛病感染的飼料,即染上「狂牛症」;而人若吃下受狂牛症感染的牛肉,即染上「庫賈氏症」(人類的狂牛症)。
    • 4. prion 在人體的潛伏期長達5~ 20年。不知情的受感染者,腦組織會被異常蛋白一點一點的啃噬,變成像海綿一樣而不自覺。發病初期出現憂鬱、焦慮、及幻覺等精神疾病的症狀,慢慢地出現走路不穩、行動困難、肢體無法自主,最終智力衰退,在發病後一年內快速死亡。許多患者常被誤判成阿茲海默症。




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