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文法講座二十二:使役動詞

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  • 2012-11-21
  • 使役動詞有:let、have、make、get。意思都是「使」或「讓」或「叫」。
    但這四個使役動詞意思上略有細微差別:
    • let:讓某人做他想做的事。
    • make:強迫某人 / 叫某人做事(尤其是做他不想做的事)。且也可用 make + N + adj的寫法,如:這個壞消息讓我很傷心。This bad news makes me sad.
    • have:賦予某人責任 / 叫某人做事。
    • get:說服 / 叫某人做事。

    • 使役動詞的使用方式:

    • 「Let + O + be p.p. (過去分詞)」主要是用在「祈使句的被動語態」,使用頻率不高,建議直接用「祈使句」表達,或將 let 換成 make/ get/ have,這樣的用法較符合習慣用語。
      [例句] 請修正你的錯誤。
      (祈使句) Please correct your mistakes.
      (let 被動) Let your mistakes be corrected.
      (使役動詞) Please have your mistakes corrected.
    • [例句] 我不想去補習,但我媽叫我去。
    • I don’t want to go to cram school, but my mom makes me go.
      I don’t want to go to cram school, but my mom has me go.
      I don’t want to go to cram school, but my mom gets me to go
      使役動詞 “makes/ has” 加受詞 “me”,因受詞能執行 “go to cram school” 這動作,故搭配 go (V原)。使役動詞 “gets” 加受詞 “me”,因受詞能執行 “go to cram school”這動作,故搭配 to go (to V原)。

    • [例句] 他叫兩個護士照顧這個生病的男孩。
    • He had two nurses take care of this sick boy.
      = He got two nurses to take care of the sick boy.
      他讓生病的男孩被兩個護士照顧。
      He had the sick boy taken care of by two nurses.
      第一句,使役動詞 “had” 加受詞 “two nurses”,因受詞可執行 “take care of” 這動作,故搭配 take (V原)。使役動詞 “got” 加受詞 “two nurses”,因受詞可執行 “take care of” 這動作,故搭配to take (to V原)。第二句,使役動詞 “had” 加受詞 “the sick boy”,因受詞無法執行 “take care of” 這動作,故搭配 taken (p.p.)。
    • 請選出正確的句子:

    • A. Mom thinks computer games are a waste of time, so she won’t let us to play them.
      B. With a little smooth talk, she got her husband mop the floor for her.
      C. That she won the first prize made everyone surprised.
      D. The teacher made her students use a dictionary while they were taking the English test.
      答案:C

      A 選項:媽媽認為打電動浪費時間,所以她不讓我們打電動。
      使役動詞 “let” 後面加受詞 “us”,因受詞可執行 “play computer games” 這動作,故應搭配 play (V原),而非 to V原。

      B 選項:好言拜託後,她說動丈夫幫她擦了地板。
      使役動詞 “got” 加受詞 “her husband”,因受詞能執行 “mop the floor” 這動作,故應搭配 to mop (to V原),而非V原。

      C 選項,句子結構分析如下:
      她得第一名這件事讓每個人都很驚訝。
      That she won the first prize made  everyone surprised.
      [that子句放句首當主詞]  [動詞] [受詞]   [形容詞]
      本題考點為「使役動詞 make + N + adj」的用法。

      D 選項:老師讓他的學生考英文時使用字典。
      使役動詞 made 的確切意思為強迫某人做他不想做的事。但考英文時可用字典,絕不會是學生們不想做的事,因此建議將使役動詞 made 改成使役動詞let,因 let 意指「讓某人做他想做的事」。

     
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