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文法講座四十六:介係詞 by + Ving/ in + Ving/ on (upon) + Ving

介係詞後方需加「名詞」,動名詞 Ving 也屬名詞,可放在介係詞後。本單元介紹以下三個意思各不相同的「介係詞 + Ving」組合:
  • by + Ving:藉著做…,達成…目標。重點在陳述達成目標的方法。 
  • In + Ving:在…時;在…過程中。
  • on / upon + Ving:一…就…;立即…。  

  • by + Ving:藉著做…,達成…目標。重點在陳述達成目標的方法。 
    [例句] 藉著少工作一些,或許可減緩全球暖化。
  • Global warming can be slowed by working less.
    [目標] [by + Ving 表示達成目標的方法] 
    即:To slow global warming, we can try working fewer hours.
    [例句] John 試著藉多兼幾份工作來維持收支平衡。
    John tries to make ends meet by working several part-time jobs.
    [目標] [by + Ving 表示達成目標的方法]
    即:To make ends meet, John works several part-time jobs.

  • In + Ving:在…時;在…過程中。
    [例句] 在學英文的過程中,Lisa遭遇過許多挑戰。
    In learning English, Lisa faced lots of challenges.
    即:When learning English, Lisa faced lots of challenges.
    [例句] 做蛋糕時,務必遵照食譜說明,小心結合各項材料。
    In baking a cake, you must follow the recipe and assemble the ingredients carefully.
    即:When you bake a cake, you must follow the recipe and assemble the ingredients carefully.

  • on / upon + Ving:一…就…;立即…。 
    [例句] 一聽到妻子過世的消息,他止不住淚水潰堤。
    On hearing the news of his wife’s death, he couldn't hold back the tears.
    即:As soon as he heard of his wife’s death, he couldn't hold back the tears. 
    其中 as soon as 為「連接詞」,後方須接句子,要有主詞 + 動詞。
    即:As soon as + S1 + V1, S2 + V2。
    [例句] 一到台北,我就會打電話給你。
    Upon arriving in Taipei, I will give you a call.
    即:As soon as I arrive in Taipei, I will give you a call.
                               [現在式]         [未來式]
     as soon as 為「連接詞」,後方須接句子,要有主詞 + 動詞。且連接詞 as soon as 遇到未來時間或未來式時,緊跟在 as soon as 後方的動詞需改用現在式。
    [例句] 小女孩一聽到 Psy 的江南 Style,就立刻跳起舞來。
    Upon hearing Psy’s Gangnam Style, the little girl started dancing.
    即:As soon as the little girl heard Psy’s Gangnam Style, she started dancing. as soon as 為「連接詞」,後方須接句子,要有主詞 + 動詞。且除未來時間外,連接詞 as soon as 左右兩側的動詞時態需對稱,在此 heard 和 started均為過去式。
文法講座 2616481794266578019
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