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OLD ENOUGH? THE NBA AGE LIMIT CONTROVERSY

Posted on
  • 2013-04-02
  • 引言:去年,為了保護聯盟中的頂級球星,避免他們因參加奧運而失去寶貴的休養時間或在比賽中受傷,NBA 總裁 David Stern 建議推行「23歲以上不得參加奧運」的規定。不過NBA球星顯然不買帳,湖人一哥 Kobe Bryant 率先發難,直言這是個「餿主意」,參加奧運與否應視球員個人意願而定。這場紛紛擾擾又連帶掀起一場存在多年的舊論戰:NBA 是否應對選秀年齡設限?若答案是肯定的,那麼年齡下限究竟應提高還是下降?接下來讓我們看看支持設限的人的論點為何。同場加映一則和 Kobe Bryant 有關的創意廣告。

    影片名稱:《Nike Basketball:Count On Kobe Bryant》

    字彙 Flashcards :使用說明
    • 精選多益 / 全民英檢中高級 / 托福單字片語
    high profile (n) 受矚目
    lucrative (adj) 獲利多的
    leap (n) 跳躍
    enormous (adj) 巨大的;極多的
    draft (n) (v) 招募;徵召
    athlete (n) 運動員
    make up of N:組成
    professional (adj) 專業的
    resist (v) 抗拒
    lavish (v) 揮霍
    reward (v) 酬謝
    contract (n) 合約
    endorsement (n) 背書;代言
    deal (n) 交易
    forgo (v) 放棄
    attend (v) 參加;上學
    manage (v) 設法達成
    earn (v) 獲得
    degree (n) 學位
    neglect (v) 忽略
    focus on N:專注於 …
    showcase (v) 展現
    potential (n) 潛力
    pin one’s hope on N:寄希望於 …
    career (n) 職業生涯
    unfortunately (adv) 不幸地
    fail to V原:未能 …
    acknowledge (v) 承認
    rank (n) 階層;等級
    extremely (adv) 非常地;極度地
    realize (v) 了解
    dust (n) 塵土
    shatter (v) 破碎
    talented (adj) 有天份的
    injury (n) 受傷
    result in N:導致;引發
    brief (adj) 短暫的
    level (n) 層級
    skip (v) 跳過;略過
    miss out on N:錯過
    receive (v) 接受
    education (n) 教育
    lure (n) 誘惑 = temptation (n)
    handsome (adj) 金額大的;優厚的
    flashy (adj) 浮華的
    perceive (v) 看見
    false (adj) 錯誤的
    reality (n) 現實
    accusation (n) 指控
    incredible (adj) 不可思議;驚人的
    astray (adv) 迷失地;墮落地
    pretense (n) 偽裝
    criminal (adj) 犯罪的;罪過的
    enforce (v) 實施
    limit (n) 限制
    disallow (v) 不允許
    overly (adv) 過度地
    entry (n) 登記;參加比賽的人
    promote (v) 提倡
    mandatory (adj) 強制的
    require (v) 要求;需要
    at least:至少
    mature (v) 使成熟
    physically (adv) 身體上地
    emotionally (adv) 情感上地
    pressure (n) 壓力
    rigor (n) 嚴格;嚴酷
    benefit (v) 使獲益
    promising (adj) 有前途的
    improve (v) 改善
    summarize (v) 做總結
    liability (n) 妨礙
    recruit (v) (n) 招募;新成員
    equip (v) 使具備
    impact (n) 影響
    competitive (adj) 競爭激烈的
    academic (adj) 學術上的
    rapid (adj) 快速的
    lack (v) 缺乏
    wealth (n) 財富


    Several of the high profile poster boys of the NBA—Kevin Garnett, Kobe Bryant and LeBron James— made the lucrative leap from high school straight to the NBA.   __  01  __   these players have been so successful, high school stars with enormous talents are highly sought after.   __  02  __  , in the 2001 NBA draft, high school athletes made up four of the first ten players. For these young athletes, the opportunities to play against the best players in the professional basketball world are hard to resist. Lavished with attention, top players will not only be   __  03  __   with multi-million dollar contracts and endorsement deals but live a lifestyle most people can only dream about.   __  04  __   forgoing college for the NBA draft has grown more and more popular.

    Not too long ago, many athletes attended college without managing to earn a degree. They   __  05  __   their studies while focusing on showcasing their athletic potential and   __  06 __   all their hopes on a professional sports career. Unfortunately, they failed to acknowledge the cruel reality that the   __  07  __   of entering the professional ranks are extremely small. More often than not, they realized too late that their athletic potential could carry them only so   __  08  __   and the professional teams weren’t interested in them. They ended up being left behind in the dust of their shattered dreams.  __  09  __   for the talented few, injuries often resulted in “careers” that were very brief.

    Now these same problems are moving down to the high school level. Talented high schoolers skip college to go straight to the pros. I worry that, just   __  10  __   many collegiate athletes, they will miss out on the opportunity to receive an education. The lure of professional sports with its handsome money and flashy lifestyle may lead them to perceive a false sense of reality. The Kobe Bryant case and Mike Tyson accusations are only a few examples of young athletes with incredible star potential that were led astray by these false   __  11  __ . Offering these temptations to high school students is almost   __  12  __ .

    The NBA should enforce an age limit on players and disallow overly early draft entry   __  13  __   promoting it. The mandatory rule should require young athletes to spend at least two years in college maturing physically as well as emotionally to take on the high pressure and daily   __  14  __   of being a professional basketball player. This also sends a message to student athletes that their grade point average is just as important as their average points per game. Not only would age requirements in the NBA   __  15  __   promising young athletes but they would improve the sport itself.

    A. pinning B. no wonder C. even D. in fact E. criminal
    F. rewarded G. benefit H. since I. rigors J. far
    K. neglected L. pretenses M. instead of N. chances O. like

    聽力請先下載擴充軟體:安裝方式說明
    Several of the high profile poster boys of the NBA—Kevin Garnett, Kobe Bryant and LeBron James— made the lucrative leap from high school straight to the NBA. Since these players have been so successful, high school stars with enormous talents are highly sought after. In fact, in the 2001 NBA draft, high school athletes made up four of the first ten players. For these young athletes, the opportunities to play against the best players in the professional basketball world are hard to resist. Lavished with attention, top players will not only be rewarded with multi-million dollar contracts and endorsement deals but live a lifestyle most people can only dream about. No wonder forgoing college for the NBA draft has grown more and more popular.

    Not too long ago, many athletes attended college without managing to earn a degree. They neglected their studies while focusing on showcasing their athletic potential and pinning all their hopes on a professional sports career. Unfortunately, they failed to acknowledge the cruel reality that the chances of entering the professional ranks are extremely small. More often than not, they realized too late that their athletic potential could carry them only so far and the professional teams weren’t interested in them. They ended up being left behind in the dust of their shattered dreams. Even for the talented few, injuries often resulted in “careers” that were very brief.

    Now these same problems are moving down to the high school level. Talented high schoolers skip college to go straight to the pros. I worry that, just like many collegiate athletes, they will miss out on the opportunity to receive an education. The lure of professional sports with its handsome money and flashy lifestyle may lead them to perceive a false sense of reality. The Kobe Bryant case and Mike Tyson accusations are only a few examples of young athletes with incredible star potential that were led astray by these false pretenses. Offering these temptations to high school students is almost criminal.

    The NBA should enforce an age limit on players and disallow overly early draft entry instead of promoting it. The mandatory rule should require young athletes to spend at least two years in college maturing physically as well as emotionally to take on the high pressure and daily rigors of being a professional basketball player. This also sends a message to student athletes that their grade point average is just as important as their average points per game. Not only would age requirements in the NBA benefit promising young athletes but they would improve the sport itself.

    Q:Which of the following best summarizes this article?
    (A) Once immature high schoolers are drafted into the league, they might become a liability, athletically and personally.
    (B) Some high school recruits are equipped to make an impact in the competitive world of the NBA.
    (C) The NBA should have an age minimum on players entering the draft and encourage them to develop both academic and athletic skills.
    (D) The rapid jump from high school to the professional ranks creates athletes that lack social maturity and are easily led astray by fame and wealth.

    建議做完聽力和閱讀後, 打開播放器, 跟著一起朗讀文章, 熟悉發音和語調。

    文意選填解答:
    1. H 2. D 3. F 4. B 5. K
    6. A 7. N 8. J 9. C 10. O
    11. L 12. E 13. M 14. I 15. G
    1. 句子結構分析如下:
      __  01  __   these players have been …, high school starsare highly …
    [連接詞]    [主詞1]     [動詞1]    [主詞2]     [動詞2]

    兩個主詞,兩個動詞,代表有兩個句子。連結兩個句子需用第 1 格「連接詞」。 從文意可知,「因為」(since) 高中球員表現出色,所以高中籃球新星搶手。 連接詞「因為」的詳細解說請見文法講座二十四
    2. 從第 2 格放句首且後方搭配逗點可推知第 2 格為「副詞」。前一句提到高中籃球新星搶手,後一句,10 個簽約球員中有 4 個是高中生,這訊息是用來補充說明高中籃球新星搶手有多麼搶手,故用 in fact。
    3. 從文意可知,球團及廣告商給頂尖球員許多簽約金及代言約,即球員被「獎賞」(reward),故用被動式 be + p.p.。
    4. 從前一句可知,高中頂尖球員賺大錢,「難怪」大家不念大學,搶進NBA。「no wonder」句型的詳細解說請見 文法講座四十五
    5. 主詞 they 後方需加「動詞」,第 5 格為「動詞」。從前一句可知,運動員沒想要取得大學學位,代表他們「輕忽」( neglected ) 他們的學業。
    6. 「對等連接詞」and 兩邊須搭配相同詞性的字。當 and 的左邊為 showcasing 時,為求對稱,第 6 格應為Ving。從文意可知,高中球員全心「寄望」可進職業球壇。片語「寄望於…」:pin one's hopes on N。
    7. 定冠詞 the 後方得搭配「名詞」,第 7 格為「名詞」。從關鍵字「殘酷現實」 ( cruel reality ) 可知,進入職籃的「機會」( chances ) 很小。
    8. so 後方需搭配「形容詞」或「副詞」,故第 8 格為「形容詞」或「副詞」。從後方句「專業球團對他們不感興趣」可知他們的能力「只能到這」 only so far。
    9. 從第 9 格上方段落可知,進 NBA 機率極低,「就算」進了,也可能因傷被迫退出。even 放句首,用來加強語氣。
    10. 「介係詞」後方才可搭配名詞 many collegiate athletes,故第 10 格為「介係詞」。從文意可知,高中球員也可能「像」( like ) 大學球員一樣,錯失接受教育的好機會。「介係詞」 like 的詳細用法請見 文法講座三十七
    11. 形容詞 false 後方需搭配第 11 格「名詞」。從 11 格上方段落可推知,高中球員容易在奢華生活 ( flashy lifestyles ) 的「假象」 ( pretenses ) 誘惑下而迷失 ( astray ) 自我。
    12. be 動詞後須搭配「形容詞」,所以第 12 格為「形容詞」。從文意可推知,用奢華生活誘惑青年學子,害他們錯失受大學教育的好機會,真是「罪惡」( criminal )。
    13. 「介係詞」後方才可搭配動名詞 promoting,故第 13 格為「介係詞」。從文意可知,NBA 應禁止過早招募年輕球員「而不是」( instead of ) 逆向提倡它。「介係詞」 instead of 的詳細解說請見 文法講座十
    14. 「形容詞」 daily 後方應搭配第 13 格「名詞」。從文意可知,專業運動員壓力大,每天訓練也很「嚴格」rigors。
    15. 句子結構分析如下:
    Not only would age requirements  __  15  __   promising … athletes
    [連接詞]    [助動詞]    [主詞]            [動詞]
    主詞 age requirements 後方需搭配「動詞」,又前方有助動詞 would,故第 15 格為「動詞原形」。從文意可知,年齡限制對球員「有益」( benefit )。 not only A but also B 相關解說請見 文法講座六。not only A but also B 倒裝句法請見 文法講座三十六

    閱讀解答:C
    好幾個 NBA 知名的海報男孩,如 Kevin Garnett、Kobe Bryant 和 LeBron James,從高中一躍進入 NBA 賺大錢。由於這些球員表現優異,所以 NBA 大舉徵召有潛質的中學運動員。實際上,2001 年 NBA 招募的前十大頂尖球員中,高中球員就佔了 4 個。對這些年輕球員而言,在職籃世界和頂尖球星一較高下的機會著實令人難以抗拒。頂尖球星揮霍著他人關愛的眼神,不但能收到數百萬美金的合約和代言機會,同時也能過著他人夢寐以求的生活。難怪為參加 NBA 選秀而放棄大學學業這種模式變得越來越熱門。

    不久之前,許多運動員進入大學殿堂,卻沒打算取得大學學位。他們忽略學業,專注於展示他們的運動潛力,且將所有希望寄託在成為職業球員上。不幸地,他們沒能認清殘酷的現實,因進入職籃的可能性微乎其微。更常見的是,他們太晚才發現原來自己的運動潛力不過爾爾,專業球團對他們毫無興趣,最終淪落到被遠遠拋在後頭,淹沒在自己破碎的夢想所揚起的飛塵中。即便是少數潛力無窮的新星,他們的職業生涯也可能因受傷而早夭。

    現在這些相同的問題已下移到中學層面。有潛力的中學生跳過大學階段直接進入職籃領域。我擔心他們會像許多大學運動員一樣,錯過受教育的機會。職業運動挾著豐厚報酬和浮華生活的誘惑,可能讓他們對現實生活有了錯誤的解讀。Kobe Bryant 的案子和 Mike Tyson 的指控案都只是冰山一角,還有更多像他們一樣具驚人球星潛質卻被浮華假象誘入歧途的的年輕球員。向學生獻上這些誘惑簡直是種犯罪。

    NBA 應對球員年齡設限,禁止過早招募年輕球員而非逆向提倡它。這強制性的法規規定年輕球員至少需在大學就讀兩年,待身心成熟,足以承受職籃球星高壓且嚴苛的生活時,再將他們徵召入球團。這措施同時也向學生運動員傳達了一個訊息:他們的學業成績和毎場比賽的得分一樣重要。NBA 年齡限制不僅對年輕新星有利,也能提升籃球運動的品質。

    問題:以下何者為這篇文章做了最佳總結?
    A. 一旦不成熟的中學生被召入 NBA 後,他們可能對球團造成阻礙。
    B. 有些被球團徵召的中學生,具備在競爭激烈的 NBA 世界裏呼風喚雨的能力。
    C. NBA 應設立球員最低簽約年齡限制,並鼓勵他們在學業和球技並進。
    D. 快速從中學躍入職業運動員領域的這條捷徑,製造出許多缺乏社會成熟度,和易在名利影響下誤入歧途的運動員。


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