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TIME FOR CHANGE

Posted on
  • 2012-10-30
  • 高緯度的地區,夏天日照時間長,冬天日照時間短,有日光節約時間的機制。實施日光節約時間機制的緣由為何?對人類生活的影響是什麼呢?
    《 日光節約時間相關說明 》

    字彙 Flashcards :使用說明
    • 精選多益 / 全民英檢中高級 / 托福單字片語
    credit (v) 歸功於…
    concept (n) 概念
    coin (v) 創造
    rise (v) 起床
    highlight (v) 強調
    potential (n) 潛力;可能性
    shift (v) 轉變
    maximize (v) 充分利用
    come into play:起作用
    scarcity (n) 不足;稀少
    ration (v) 限量供給
    operative word (n):關鍵字
    adopt (v) 採用
    reduce (v) 減少
    artificial lighting (n) 人工照明
    coal (n) 煤
    follow suit:如法炮製
    reinstate (v) 恢復
    mandatory (adj) 強制的
    necessity (n) 必要性
    voluntary (adj) 自願的
    tradition (n) 傳統
    region (n) 地區
    observe (v) 遵守
    conserve (v) 節省;保存
    boost (v) 提升
    benign (adj) 良好的
    effect (n) 效果;影響
    disrupt (v) 干擾;擾亂
    pose (v) 引起
    risk (n) 危險
    depression (n) 沮喪;憂鬱
    setback (n) 障礙
    heart attack (n) 心臟病發
    circadian (adj) 生理節奏的
    benefit (v) 得到好處
    havoc (n) 混亂;破壞
    pattern (n) 形態;方式
    lead to N:導致;引發
    as a result (adv) 因此
    population (n) 人口
    drastically (adv) 劇烈地
    decrease (v) 減少
    productivity (n) 生產力
    susceptibility (n) 易受影響
    come to an end:結束
    sleep-deprived (adj) 睡眠不足的
    recapture (v) 重新奪回;重溫


    Benjamin Franklin has been credited with the concept of daylight saving. Coining the phrase “early to bed, early to rise,” he highlighted the energy saving potential of shifting the time to maximize daylight hours. However, it was not   __ 1 __   World War I that Franklin’s idea came into play when scarcity and    __2  __  were the operative words. Daylight saving time (DST) was first adopted by Germany to __  3 __   artificial lighting and therefore save coal for the war effort. Britain followed   __ 4 __   in 1916 and, finally, the US, in 1918. During World War II, the US reinstated the daylight saving law and made DST mandatory for the whole country. Though the close of the war ended the law’s necessity, the national habit continued on a   __ 5 __   basis and has now become a longstanding tradition in many regions. More than 47 million Americans   __ 6 __   daylight saving time: turning clocks forward by an hour in the spring and backward by an hour in the autumn.

    For decades, daylight saving time is believed to help conserve energy and boost health by encouraging active lifestyles. As  __  7 __   as DST might seem, some scientists warn of ill effects. They argue that the “spring forward” time change disrupts sleep and could pose health risks, such as depression, sleep setbacks and heart attacks. Their studies show that our circadian body clocks,   __ 8   __ by light and darkness, never benefit from gaining an “extra” hour of sunlight to the end of the day during daylight saving time. Instead, the changeover can cause   __ 9  __  with our sleep patterns and lead to “social jet lag.” The majority of the population, as a result, has drastically decreased productivity and increasing    __10__    to illness.

    The good news is: As daylight saving time comes to an end on November 4th this year, those who are sleep-deprived will finally have a chance to recapture that lost hour of sleep from March.

    A. suit B. rationing C. voluntary D. havoc E. reduce
    F. set G. susceptibility H. until I. observe J. benign
    聽力請先下載擴充軟體:安裝方式說明

    Benjamin Franklin has been credited with the concept of daylight saving. Coining the phrase “early to bed, early to rise,” he highlighted the energy saving potential of shifting the time to maximize daylight hours. However, it was not until World War I that Franklin’s idea came into play when scarcity and rationing were the operative words. Daylight saving time (DST) was first adopted by Germany to reduce artificial lighting and therefore save coal for the war effort. Britain followed suit in 1916 and, finally, the US, in 1918. During World War II, the US reinstated the daylight saving law and made DST mandatory for the whole country. Though the close of the war ended the law’s necessity, the national habit continued on a voluntary basis and has now become a longstanding tradition in many regions. More than 47 million Americans observe daylight saving time: turning clocks forward by an hour in the spring and backward by an hour in the autumn.

    For decades, daylight saving time is believed to help conserve energy and boost health by encouraging active lifestyles. As benign as DST might seem, some scientists warn of ill effects. They argue that the “spring forward” time change disrupts sleep and could pose health risks, such as depression, sleep setbacks and heart attacks. Their studies show that our circadian body clocks, set by light and darkness, never benefit from gaining an “extra” hour of sunlight to the end of the day during daylight saving time. Instead, the changeover can cause havoc with our sleep patterns and lead to “social jet lag.” The majority of the population, as a result, has drastically decreased productivity and increasing susceptibility to illness.

    The good news is: As daylight saving time comes to an end on November 4th this year, those who are sleep-deprived will finally have a chance to recapture that lost hour of sleep from March.

    Q : The author implies that all of the following statements about daylight saving time are true except that ______.
    A. the pure social change of time cannot fool humans’ biological clocks.
    B. the practice of DST was born of necessity during the wartime.
    C. DST provides an additional hour of daylight in the evening hours
    D. heart attack risks go up in the days after DST ends, possibly due to sleep deprivation.


    建議做完聽力和閱讀後, 打開播放器, 跟著一起朗讀文章, 熟悉發音和語調。

    文意選填解答:
    1. H 2. B 3. E 4. A 5. C
    6. I 7. J 8. F 9. D 10. G

    1. 從句意可推知「直到」(until)第一次世界大戰,「日光節約時間」的概念才被採用。連接詞 until 的使用方式和句型解說請見大學堂文法講座 12
    2. 第 2 格放在動詞 were 前,應為「主詞」,即「名詞」。 從句意,戰時資源「短缺;稀少」可知應採「限量供給」(rationing) 的方式。
    3. 第 3 格考點為「不定詞」,即 to + 動詞原形。從文意可知「少用」(reduce) 煤油燈,煤礦存量才會多些。
    4. 第 4 題考點為片語「跟著做」( follow suit )。從文意可知,繼德國實施日光節約時間後,英美也陸續「跟進」。
    5. 第 5 格放在名詞「基礎」( basis ) 前應為「形容詞」。從前一句可知原本DST在戰後就已失去強制性,而它之所以成為傳統是因大家「自願」( voluntary) 遵守。
    6. 主詞「美國人」( Americans ) 後需搭配第 6 格「動詞」。從文意可知,DST已成為許多美國人「遵守」( observe ) 的傳統。
    7. 本題考點為連接詞「雖然;儘管」的句型: (As) 形容詞/ 副詞 as 主詞1 + 動詞1, 主詞2 + 動詞2。句型解說請見大學堂文法講座 13
    連綴動詞 seem 後方需搭配「形容詞」,故第7格為「形容詞」。DST既可節約能源又能保健康,由此可知DST為「不錯的」( benign ) 提案。
    8. 從被動語態的 by (被) 可知第8格為「過去分詞」( p.p. )。我們的生理時鐘是 由晝夜所「調節設定」( set )。
    9. 從文意可知,社交「時差」( jet lag ) 引發睡眠「混亂失調」( havoc )。
    10. 形容詞 increasing 後需搭配第 10 格「名詞」。 從文意可知,睡眠「混亂失調」( havoc ) 的人「容易」( susceptibility ) 生病。

    閱讀解答:D
    日光節約時間結束囉! 調時鐘吧!

    「日光節約」的概念得歸功於班傑明·富蘭克林。創出「早睡,早起」口號的他,强調更動時間,善用白天時光,將有助於節能。然而,直到第一次世界大戰,當「資源短缺」和「限量配給」成為關鍵字時,富蘭克林的概念才開始發揮效用。德國率先採用日光節約時間,减少人工照明,因而省下煤礦供戰時使用。英國於1916年跟進,最後美國也於1918年加入。第二次世界大戰期間,美國又恢復日光節約法令,全國強制實施。雖然戰爭結束時,日光節約法令也隨之失去了必要性,但國內人民出於自願,仍延續了這個習慣。現在「日光節能」在許多地區已成為行之多年的傳統。超过4千7百萬美國人遵守日光節約時間:在春天時,將時鐘向前調一小時;在秋天時,將時鐘往後播一小時。

    數十年來,大家普遍相信日光節約時間有助於節約能源,且藉著鼓吹動態生活形態,它還能促進身體健康。儘管日光節約時間似乎有百利而無一害,有些科學家警告大家,日光節約時間可能有負面影響。他們主張,將時間往前調,除了會擾亂睡眠,也可能對健康造成如憂鬱症、睡眠障礙和心臟病發等危害。他們的研究顯示,我們的生理時鐘,主要受日夜調節,不可能從日光節約期間,傍晚多出來的那一小時日照裡獲得任何好處。相反地,時間的轉換可能擾亂睡眠模式,引發「社交時差」。大多數人也因而生產力遽降,且變得越來越容易生病。

    好消息是:隨著日光節約時間於今年11月4日結束,那些睡眠不足的人終於有機會拿回從3月起少睡的那一小時。

    Q:作者暗指以下和日光節約時間相關的陳述皆為真,除了______。
    A. 單就社會層面調動時間還是無法騙過人類的生理時鐘。
    B. 日光節約時間的實施是基於戰時所需。
    C. 日光節約時間讓傍晚多出了一小時的日光時間。
    D. 日光節約時間結束後幾天,心臟病發危機之所以升高可能是因為睡眠不足。

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