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CRIME AND PUNISHMENT, NORWAY STYLE!

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  • 2012-12-06
  • 猜猜這座建築的用途是什麼?奢華五星級飯店?精品旅館?豪宅?貴族大學宿舍?答案恐怕大出你意料之外。

    《 天堂般的挪威Halden監獄簡介》

    字彙 Flashcards :使用說明
    • 精選多益 / 全民英檢中高級 / 托福單字片語
    award (n) 獎項
    interior (adj) 室內的
    glance (n) 一瞥
    boutique (n) 精品店
    prison (n) 監獄
    hold (v) 拘留
    high-risk (adj) 高度危險的
    rapist (n) 強暴犯
    murderer (n) 謀殺犯
    smuggler (n) 走私犯
    tinge (v) 染上;有輕微的…
    repulsive (adj) 噁心的
    sweat (n) 汗
    urine (n) 尿
    scent (n) 香味
    emanate (v) 散發
    inmate (n) 犯人 = prisoner (n)
    embody (v) 象徵
    principle (n) 準則
    justice system (n) 司法體系
    focus on N:著重…
    rehabilitation (n) 改造;康復
    punishment (n) 處罰
    feature (v) 以…為特色
    amenity (n) 設施
    state-of-the-art (adj) 最先進/高級的
    = top-notch (adj)
    trail (n) 小徑
    cell (n) 牢房
    rival (v) 比得上
    well-appointed (adj) 設備完善的
    bar-less (adj) 沒有鐵欄杆的
    overlook (v) 俯瞰
    scenery (n) 景色
    lounge (n) 客廳
    resemble (v) 類似
    pamper (v) 寵愛
    host (v) 款待
    freestanding (adj) 獨棟的
    asset (n) 可貴的優點
    guard (n) 警衛
    staff (n) 全體職員
    intimidation (n) 威脅
    distance (n) 距離;疏遠
    mingle (v) 混合;打成一片
    counsel (v) 協商建議
    combat (v) 戰鬥;打擊
    criminality (n) 犯罪(行為)
    transform (v) 轉變
    recidivism (n) 再犯
    recidivistic (adj) 再犯
    comparison (n) 比較
    release (n) 釋放
    drift (v) 移動;不知不覺陷入
    figure (n) 數字
    hover (v) 徘徊
    deter (v) 遏阻
    commit (v) 做;犯下
    imprisonment (n) 囚禁
    futile (adj) 無效的
    address (v) 設法了解解決
    poverty (n) 貧窮
    humanely (adv) 人道地
    boost (v) 提高增加
    decent (adj) 正派的
    penalty (n) 刑罰
    rigorous (adj) 嚴格的
    enforcement (n) 執行
    reduce (v) 減少


    Norway’s Halden prison has won an award for its interior design. At first glance the environment feels more Scandinavian boutique hotel   __ 01 __   class A prison holding high-risk rapists, murderers and drug smugglers. The air here isn’t tinged with the repulsive smell of sweat and urine.   __ 02__   , the scent of coffee and food emanates from the “kitchen lab,”  __  03 __   inmates take cooking courses.

    Ten years and $252 million dollars in the making, Halden embodies the guiding principles of the Norwegian justice system, which focus on human rights and rehabilitation rather than punishment. It    __04 __   amenities like a music studio, a library, a state-of-the-art gym, jogging trails as well as workshops. The cells rival well-appointed college dorm rooms with flat-screen TVs, mini-fridges, en-suite bathrooms and bar-less windows overlooking forest scenery. Then for every 10 to 12 rooms, there are a top-notch kitchen and lounge areas that  __  05 __   IKEA showrooms. Better yet, the   __ 06 __   prisoners can host their families during overnight visits in a freestanding two-bedroom house.

    Halden’s greatest asset, though, may be the strong relationship among guards, staff and inmates. Prison guards, half of   __ 07__    are women, don’t carry guns for they may create unnecessary intimidation and social distance. All guards and staff mingle with inmates, counsel them, and work closely with them to combat their criminality. A great deal of enthusiasm goes to transform inmates’ lives and  __ 08 __   them leave as better people. 

    Countries track recidivism rates differently, but even an imperfect  __  09__    suggests the Norwegian model works. Within two years of   __ 10  __ , only 20% of Norway’s prisoners drift back into prison while in the U.S., the figure hovers around 60%.


    A. instead B. features C. than D. pampered E. have
    F. whom G. where H.comparison I. release J. resemble
    聽力請先下載擴充軟體:安裝方式說明
    Norway’s Halden prison has won an award for its interior design. At first glance the environment feels more Scandinavian boutique hotel than class A prison holding high-risk rapists, murderers and drug smugglers. The air here isn’t tinged with the repulsive smell of sweat and urine. Instead, the scent of coffee and food emanates from the “kitchen lab,” where inmates take cooking courses.

    Ten years and $252 million dollars in the making, Halden embodies the guiding principles of the Norwegian justice system, which focus on human rights and rehabilitation rather than punishment. It features amenities like a music studio, a library, a state-of-the-art gym, jogging trails as well as workshops. The cells rival well-appointed college dorm rooms with flat-screen TVs, mini-fridges, en-suite bathrooms and bar-less windows overlooking forest scenery. Then for every 10 to 12 rooms, there are a top-notch kitchen and lounge areas that resemble IKEA showrooms. Better yet, the pampered prisoners can host their families during overnight visits in a freestanding two-bedroom house.

    Halden’s greatest asset, though, may be the strong relationship among guards, staff and inmates. Prison guards, half of whom are women, don’t carry guns for they may create unnecessary intimidation and social distance. All guards and staff mingle with inmates, counsel them, and work closely with them to combat their criminality. A great deal of enthusiasm goes to transform inmates’ lives and have them leave as better people.

    Countries track recidivism rates differently, but even an imperfect comparison suggests the Norwegian model works. Within two years of release, only 20% of Norway’s prisoners drift back into prison while in the U.S., the figure hovers around 60%.

    Q. Which of the following is deeply embedded in the Norwegian penal system?
    A. Prison life should be painful so that people will be deterred from committing crimes.
    B. Imprisonment is futile without addressing social problems such as poverty and unemployment.
    C. Treating prisoners humanely boosts their chances of transforming into decent
    members of society.
    D. Heavy penalties and rigorous law enforcement help reduce crime rates and control recidivistic crime.

    建議做完聽力和閱讀後, 打開播放器, 跟著一起朗讀文章, 熟悉發音和語調。
    文意選填解答:
    1. C 2. A 3. G 4. B 5. J
    6. D 7. F 8. E 9. H 10. I

    1. 從 more 可知為比較級,故搭配「比」(than)。形容詞、副詞的原級、比較級、最高級,詳細解說請見 文法講座二十一
    2. 從文意可知監獄中瀰漫的不是尿味,「而是」(instead) 食物香味。instead 詳細解說請見 大學堂文法講座十
    3. 句型結構分析如下:
    the scent of coffee and food emanates from the lab    03    inmates  take
    [主詞1]                [動詞1]            [關代]    [主詞2] [動詞2]
    兩個主詞,兩個動詞,代表兩個句子。連接兩個句子可用「關係代名詞」。先形詞 lab 為「物」。 再分析 inmates 為首的句子:
    inmates take cooking courses in       the lab.
                            [介係詞] [物關係代名詞 which]
    介係詞 + which = 代表地點的關係副詞 where。關係副詞 where 詳細解說請見 文法講座二
    4. 從文意可知,圖書館和健身房等是Halden 監獄的「特色」feature。單數主詞「監獄」it 後需搭配單數動詞 features。
    5. that 關代,代替前面的「先行詞」kitchen and lounge areas。that子句句型結構分析如下:
    kitchen and lounge areas    06    IKEA showrooms.
    [主詞/ that ]            [動詞]
    複數主詞搭配第 6 格「複數動詞」。從文意可知,廚房及客廳區域「像」 (resemble) IKEA 展示區。
    6. prisoners 為名詞,可見前方第 6 格為形容詞。第 6 格後方句子:犯人們有獨棟房子可招待家人。由此可知犯人們很「受寵」(pampered)。
    7. 句子結構分析如下:
    Prison guards, half of    07           are women, don’t carry guns
    [主詞1]             [關代/ 主詞2]    [動詞2]   [動詞1]
    兩個動詞,代表兩個句子,連接句子可用「關係代名詞」。先行詞 prison guards 為「人」,介係詞 of 後方需搭配「受詞」,故第7格為「人受詞性質」的關代 whom。關係代名詞詳細解說請見 文法講座一
    8. 前方transform 為動詞原形,and為「對等連接詞」,故第8格應和 transform 對等,也為「動詞原形」。「使役動詞」have後方需搭配「動詞原形」leave。使役動詞詳細解說請見 文法講座二十二
    9. 從「每國追蹤再犯率的方法不同」可知拿各國狀況做「比較」。形容詞 imperfect後方需搭配「名詞」。第9格為名詞「比較」(comparison)。
    10. 從監獄被「釋放」後又回籠才構成「再犯」( recidivism)。介係詞of後方需搭配「名詞」(release)。    

    閱讀解答:C
    犯罪與懲罰,挪威STYLE

    挪威Halden監獄已赢得了室内設計獎項。第一眼望去,整個監獄環境比較像斯堪地那維亞風格的精品酒店,而不像關著危險强姦犯,謀殺犯和毒品走私犯的A級監獄。這兒的空氣不帶噁心的汗臭和尿騷味。相反地,陣陣咖啡和食物的香味從「廚房實驗室」傳出,當時囚犯們正在那兒上烹飪課。

    歷時十年,耗費兩億五千兩百萬美金的Halden監獄體現了挪威司法系統的最高原則,他們側重人權和康復而非懲罰。Halden監獄的特色設施包括錄音室、圖書館、先進的健身房、慢跑步道及工作室。牢房媲美設備齊全的大學宿舍,內有平板電視、迷你冰箱、房內有私人浴室,且窗户不加鐵欄杆,可俯瞰森林風景。然後每10到12個房間共用一個像IKEA展示區的廚房和客廳休息區。更好的是,受寵的犯人還可用獨棟兩房的房子招待前來懇親,需過夜的家人。

    然而Halden最大的優點在於監獄守衛、工作人員和犯人間的密切關係。監獄警衛,其中有一半為女性,一律不佩槍,因槍枝可能製造不必要的威嚇和疏離感。所有警衛和工作人員與囚犯打成一片,給予輔導諮商,並和犯人密切合作打擊犯罪行為。獄方人員投入極大熱情改造犯人的生活,讓他們離開監獄時,可成為更好的人。

    每個國家追蹤累犯率的方式不同,但即便以最不完善的方式來做比較仍能證實挪威模式確實有效。出獄兩年內,只有 20% 的挪威囚犯再犯入獄,而在美國,再犯率約在 60% 左右徘徊。


    問題:以下哪個概念深植在挪威刑法系統中?
    A. 監獄生活應痛苦難耐,以遏阻人們犯罪。
    B. 若不先解決如貧窮或失業等社會問題,「監禁」也徒勞無功。
    C. 人道對待犯人,提升他們成為社會正直一員的機會。
    D. 重刑和嚴格執法有助降低犯罪率和控制犯人再犯。

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