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FLU ATTACK! TIPS TO STAY HEALTHY(2)

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  • 2013-01-30
  • 引言:前一陣子號稱病毒界「法拉利」的諾羅病毒肆虐,許多人上吐下瀉緊急就醫。本周諾羅疫情雖暫時趨緩,但仍未脫離高峰期。加上隨後流感也將進入高峰期,大家可謂腹背受敵,唯有避開人多的公共場合,勤洗手,注意衛生才能預防流感和諾羅病毒找上門。

    《流感疫苗運作的原理》
    字彙 Flashcards :使用說明
    • 精選多益 / 全民英檢中高級 / 托福單字片語
    virus (n) 病毒
    spread (v) 擴散;傳播
    mainly (adv) 主要地
    cough (v) 咳嗽
    sneeze (v) (n) 打噴嚏
    recommend (v) 建議;推薦
    frequently (adv) 經常地
    recognize (v) 承認;接受
    defense (n) 防衛
    germ (n) 細菌
    scrub (v) 用力擦洗
    snuff (v) 消滅
    surface (n) 表面
    available (adj) 可取得的
    sanitizer (n) 消毒殺菌劑
    contain (v) 包含;有
    cover (v) 覆蓋;遮蔽
    grab (v) 抓
    doorknob (n) 門把
    client (n) 顧客
    pass along N:傳遞
    host (v) 招待;作東
    tissue (n) 面紙
    dispose of N:丟棄;處理掉
    promptly (adv) 立即地
    effectively (adv) 有效地
    block (v) 阻塞
    droplet (n) 小水珠
    out of reach:拿不到
    crook (n) 彎曲
    elbow (n) 手肘
    manage (v) 管理
    stress (n) 壓力
    hindrance (n) 阻礙
    lack of N:缺乏
    reduce (v) 減少;降低 = lower
    immune (n) 免疫
    function (n) 功能;作用
    thus (adv) 因此
    fend off :阻擋
    meditation (n) 冥想
    moderate (adj) 適度的
    release (v) 釋放
    boost (v) 提升
    antibiotics (n) 抗生素
    plain and simple:清楚可見地
    bacteria (n) 細菌(複數)
    kill off:消滅
    request (v) 索取;請求
    symptom (n) 症狀
    likewise (adv) 同樣地
    sud (n) 單位劑量
    proportion (n) 部份;比例
    resistant (adj) 抵抗的;頑固的
    leave sth behind:留下;殘留
    illness (n) 疾病
    crucial (adj) 重要的
    address (v) 設法處理
    underlying (adj) 潛藏的
    cause (n) 原因
    viral (adj) 病毒引起的
    precaution (n) 預防措施
    save (v) 節省
    a whole lot of N:許許多多的
    restless (adj) 坐立難安;輾轉難眠的
    inhibit (v) 抑制;禁止
    replication (n) 複製
    decrease (v) 減少;降低
    duration (n) 持續的時間
    apply (v) 適用
    telltale (adj) 洩漏秘密的
    tickle (n) 發癢
    sniff (n) 擤鼻聲
    congestion (n) 鼻塞
    dose (n) ㄧ劑


    ■ DO:Wash Your Hands Often
    Flu viruses spread mainly from person to person through the coughing, sneezing, or talking of someone with the flu.  __  01  __  , you may catch flu when touching something with flu viruses on it and then touch your mouth, eyes, or nose. We recommend you to wash your hands frequently using warm water and soap. Though   __  02  __   hand washing as one of the best natural defense against the flu and germs, too many people aren’t scrubbing to snuff. Healthy hand washing includes scrubbing all   __  03  __  , between the fingers and under your nails for about the time it takes to sing “ Happy Birthday” twice. When soap and water aren’t   __  04  __  , hand sanitizers containing ethyl alcohol can be used. Besides, avoid touching your face,   __  05  __   you have clean hands. The eyes, nose and mouth are entry ports for flu viruses.

    ■ DON’T:Cover Your Sneeze With Your Hands
    When you sneeze into your hands,  __  06  __   are you then grab a doorknob, use a shared phone, touch a keyboard, or shake a client’s hand and then pass along whatever bug you’re hosting.   __  07  __   using your hands, cover up your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze; then   __  08  __   of used tissues promptly. The tissue can effectively block the spread of droplets containing germs. If a tissue is out of   __  09  __   , go for your shoulder or the crook of your elbow. Even Elmo knows that!

    ■ DO:Get enough sleep and manage your stress
    There is no greater hindrance to your health   __  10  __   lack of sleep and high levels of stress for they reduce immune function and thus lower the body’s ability to fend off the flu. Meditation or a moderate exercise program, 3 days a week, has been shown in studies to release pressure and boost your immune system.

    ■ DON’T:Take Antibiotics to Fight the Flu
    Plain and simple, antibiotics fight bacteria, not viruses. Moreover, antibotics can kill off the “good” bacteria that help fight infections so that the flu may get even worse. This way, it does you more harm than   __  11  __   to keep requesting antibiotics for flu symptoms.   __  12  __   , expecting an antibacterial soap to protect you is a big mistake. Those suds can’t prevent you from catching the flu but leave a larger proportion of   __  13  __   bacteria behind.

    With any illness, it’s crucial to   __  14  __   the underlying cause of the illness, whether it’s bacterial or viral. If you take the right   __  15  __  , you’ll save yourself a whole lot of restless nights and Kleenex.

    A. good B. likewise C. surfaces D. in addition E. precautions
    F. recognizing G. address H. unless I. resistant J. than
    K. chances L. dispose M. instead of N. reach O. available

    聽力請先下載擴充軟體:安裝方式說明
    ■ DO:Wash Your Hands Often
    Flu viruses spread mainly from person to person through the coughing, sneezing, or talking of someone with the flu. In addition, you may catch flu when touching something with flu viruses on it and then touch your mouth, eyes, or nose. We recommend you to wash your hands frequently using warm water and soap. Though recognizing hand washing as one of the best natural defense against the flu and germs, too many people aren’t scrubbing to snuff. Healthy hand washing includes scrubbing all surfaces, between the fingers and under your nails for about the time it takes to sing “ Happy Birthday” twice. When soap and water aren't available, hand sanitizers containing ethyl alcohol can be used. Besides, avoid touching your face, unless you have clean hands. The eyes, nose and mouth are entry ports for flu viruses.

    ■ DON’T:Cover Your Sneeze With Your Hands
    When you sneeze into your hands, chances are you then grab a doorknob, use a shared phone, touch a keyboard, or shake a client’s hand and then pass along whatever bug you’re hosting. Instead of using your hands, cover up your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze; then dispose of used tissues promptly. The tissue can effectively block the spread of droplets containing germs. If a tissue is out of reach, go for your shoulder or the crook of your elbow. Even Elmo knows that!

    ■ DO:Get enough sleep and manage your stress.
    There is no greater hindrance to your health than lack of sleep and high levels of stress for they reduce immune function and thus lower the body’s ability to fend off the flu. Meditation or a moderate exercise program, 3 days a week, has been shown in studies to release pressure as well as boost your immune system.

    ■ DON’T:Take Antibiotics to Fight the Flu
    Plain and simple, antibiotics fight bacteria, not viruses. Moreover, antibotics can kill off the “good” bacteria that help fight off infections so that the flu may get even worse. This way, it does you more harm than good to keep requesting antibiotics for flu symptoms. Likewise, expecting an antibacterial soap to protect you is a big mistake. Those suds can’t prevent you from catching the flu but leave a larger proportion of resistant bacteria behind.

    With any illness, it’s crucial to address the underlying cause of the illness, whether it’s bacterial or viral. If you take the right precautions, you’ll save yourself a whole lot of restless nights and Kleenex.

    Q:With which of the following may the author agree?
    A. Washing you hands with soap frequently can be harmful, because environmental bacteria may become resistant.
    B. Antibiotics can help inhibit the flu virus replication and thus decrease the duration of illness.
    C. Parents and teachers used to teach their children to cover their mouth and nose when they sneeze or cough, but this rule doesn't apply now.
    D. Once you feel the telltale tickle in your throat or the first sniff of congestion, taking a large dose of antibiotics is probably a waste of money.

    建議做完聽力和閱讀後, 打開播放器, 跟著一起朗讀文章, 熟悉發音和語調。

    文意選填解答:
    1. D 2. F 3. C 4. O 5. H
    6. K 7. M 8. L 9. N 10. J
    11. A 12. B 13. I 14. G 15. E
    1. 從第 1 格放句首且後方搭配逗點可推知第 1 格為「副詞」。第 1 段第 1 句說明流感感染途徑,第二句追加說明其他感染方式,因此得用副詞「而且」或「此外」besides。副詞「此外」( besides ) 的詳細解說請見 文法講座四十二
    2. 第 2 格前方並無主詞,由此可推測可能為 Ving 或 p.p.「分詞構句」。從選項中找出可和後方介係詞 as 搭配的分詞 recognizing。主詞 people 可主動執行「接受;認可」(recognize) 這動作,故選用含「主動進行」意味的 Ving 分詞。「分詞構句」的詳細解說請見 文法講座八
    3. 動詞 scrubbing 後方需搭配「受詞」,即「名詞」,由此可知第 3 格為名詞。 從後方關鍵詞「手指間」( between the fingers )及「指甲下方」( under the nails )可知和空間有關,故選「表面」surfaces。
    4. be 動詞後方需搭配第 4 格「形容詞」。從文意可推知,當無法「取得」( available )肥皂和水時,可用含酒精的手部清潔劑。
    5. 句型結構分析如下:
    Besides, avoid touching your face,  __  05  __  you have clean hands.
                                            [祈使句]         [連接詞]    [主詞]   [動詞]
    連接兩個句子需用第 5 格「連接詞」。從文意推知,「除非」( unless) 手乾淨, 否則不要摸臉。連接詞「除非」( unless )的詳細解說請見 文法講座九
    6. 第 6 格後方「握門把」等動作都是打完噴嚏後「可能」做的動作。「可能」句型為:chances are that 主詞 + 動詞。「可能」句型的詳細解說請見 文法講座四十三。
    7. 第 7 格「介係詞」後方才可搭配動名詞 using。從文意可知,打噴嚏時,「不是」用手遮,「而是」用面紙。介係詞「不是… 而是… 」的寫法為 instead of,詳細用法請見 文法講座十
    8. 唯一可不寫主詞的句子為「祈使句」,肯定的祈使句開頭為「動詞原形」,故第 8 格為「動詞原形」。從文意可知,用過的面紙應馬上「丟棄」( dispose of N ),避免接觸傳染。
    9. 介係詞 of 後方需搭配第 9 格「名詞」。從文意可知,「沒」面紙,只好朝肩膀打噴嚏。片語「拿不到」:out of reach。
    10. 從關鍵字 greater 可知本句使用「比較級」,故第 10 格為比較級的記號「比」than。「比較級」相關解說請見 文法講座二十一
    11. 從關鍵字「對某人有害」do sb harm 可知本題的考點為片語「對某人有益」do sb good,故第 11 格為 good。
    12. 從第 12 格放句首且後方搭配逗點可推知第 12 格為「副詞」。第 12 格上方三句重點為:抗生素無法抗流感。第 12 格後方句重點為:抗菌香皂無法抗流感。兩者意思相同,故用副詞「同樣地」likewise。副詞「同樣地」likewise 的詳細解說請見 文法講座四十四
    13. 「名詞」bacteria 前方需搭配「形容詞」,第 13 格為「形容詞」。從文意可知,用了抗菌香皂還可留下來的必定是有「抗藥性的」( resistant ) 細菌。
    14. 本題考點為「不定詞」to 動詞原形,故第 14 格為「動詞原形」。從文意可知,「找出」或「解決」( address )病根是很重要的。
    15. 定冠詞 the 後方需搭配第 15 格「名詞」。從全篇文意可知正確的「預防措施」( precautions )可讓你免受流感襲擊。

    閱讀解答:D
    ■ 務必勤洗手
    流感病毒主要透過流感病患的咳嗽、噴涕和說話等在人群間散佈。此外,接觸上頭有流感病毒的物品後,再觸摸自己的嘴巴、眼睛或鼻子等,你便可能因此染上流感。我們建議你常用溫手和肥皂洗手。雖然已知洗手是防範流感和細菌最自然的方法,但太多人未徹底洗手以消滅病菌。健康洗手法包括徹底清洗各面,如手指間和指縫;洗手時間約是唱兩次生日快樂歌的長度。當手邊沒肥皂和水時,可使用含酒精的手部清潔劑。此外,除非你的手是乾淨的,避免觸摸你的臉。眼睛、鼻子和嘴巴是流感病毒入侵的入口。

    ■ 打鼻涕時不要用手掩住口鼻
    當你朝手心打完噴嚏後,可能接下來會握門把,使用公用電話,摸鍵盤或和顧客握手,接著將身上已有的病菌因此傳給別人。咳嗽或打噴嚏時,與其用手,還不如用面紙摀住口鼻,接著立刻將用過的面紙丟掉。面紙可有效阻隔含菌小水珠的散佈。若手邊沒面紙,請往肩膀或手彎處打噴嚏,這點可是連芝麻街的 Elmo 都知道的喔。

    ■ 睡眠充足,懂得排解壓力
    再也沒有什麼比缺乏睡眠和壓力過大可對健康造成更大阻礙的了。這兩者減低免疫系統的運作,進因而降低身體預防流感的能力。研究顯示冥想或ㄧ周三天適度運動有助於釋放壓力及提升免疫力。

    ■ 不要服用抗生素來抗流感
    顯而易見地,抗生素只能對抗細菌而非病毒。而且,抗生素可能殺死能預防感染的益菌,因而讓流感病情更形惡化。這麼ㄧ來,持續服用抗生素來對抗流感病灶對妳而言弊多於利。同樣地,期待抗菌肥皂能保護你免受感染也是ㄧ大錯誤。這些單位劑量無法協助你預防感冒,反而留下一大批具抗藥性的細菌。

    當遇上任何疾病,無論是細菌或病毒引起,最重要的是設法找出病因,對症下藥。若能採取正確的預防措施,你將可為自己省去許多輾轉難眠的夜晚和無數張面紙。

    Q:作者可能同意下列哪個選項?
    A. 常用肥皂洗手可能有害,因環境裡的細菌可能因而發展出抗藥性。
    B. 抗生素有助於抑制流感病毒複製,因而縮短感冒時間。
    C. 爸媽和老師以前常教孩子打噴嚏時要掩住口鼻,但這條規則現已不適用。
    D. ㄧ旦感覺喉嚨癢癢或鼻塞時,吃高劑量的抗生素或許只是浪費錢而已。


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