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FLU ATTACK! TIPS TO STAY HEALTHY(1)

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  • 2013-01-25
  • 引言:今年北半球流感來勢洶洶,美國更是出現了疫情大暴走。全美 30 個州淪陷,成為流感高發區,而全國 90% 的地區,疫情持續延燒。接下來的農曆新年假期,家家團圓之際,抵抗力差的老人和小孩,也更易暴露在受流感病毒襲擊的危機之下。該如何在這波將持續到二月底的流感季中全身而退呢?讓「大學堂英文」告訴你。同場加映《流感來襲! 病毒大軍如何入侵我們的身體呢?》

    《Flu Attack! How A Virus Invades Your Body》
    字彙 Flashcards :使用說明
    • 精選多益 / 全民英檢中高級 / 托福單字片語

    skyrocket (v) 激增;飆升
    overwhelmed (adj) 壓垮的
    declare (v) 宣布
    emergency (n) 緊急狀況
    predominant (adj) 占主導地位的
    associate (v) 和…有關
    circulate (v) 傳播散佈
    severity (n) 嚴重性
    prevention (n) 避免;預防
    put sth in action:實踐執行…
    do the trick:成功
    a good bet:可望成功的事
    vaccinate (v) 接種疫苗
    defense (n) 防衛
    current (adj) 目前的
    batch (n) 一批
    match (v) 相配
    common (adj) 常見的
    myth (n) 迷思
    hold sb back:使某人猶豫不決
    vaccine (n) 疫苗
    inactive (adj) 不活動的
    virus (n) 病毒

    fever-spiking (adj) 引發高燒的
    property (n) 特質
    rare (adj) 罕見的
    symptom(n) 症狀
    dissipate (v) 消除
    assume (v) 假定
    slap (v) 用力放置
    bandage (n) 繃帶
    injection (n) 注射
    guarantee (v) 保證
    expose (v) 曝露
    take effect:生效
    strain (n) (病菌)類型
    cover (v) 覆蓋;包括
    measure (n) 方法
    resistant (adj) 頑固的;抵抗的
    inhibit (v) 抑制;禁止
    replication (n) 複製
    duration (n) 期間;持續
    kick in:起作用;生效
    tendency (n) 傾向;趨勢
    spook (v) 受到驚嚇
    pan out :取得進展



    Flu cases are reportedly skyrocketing. Hospitals in cities like Chicago and Boston are overwhelmed, with the latter   __  01  __   a public health emergency. Predominant in the air this year   __  02  __   an H3N2 virus associated with high numbers of hospitalizations and deaths. Since it hasn’t   __  03  __   for several years, it is likely to make lots of people sick.   __  04  __   the severity of this year’s flu outbreak, it’s wise of you to do   __  05  __   is in your power to stay flu-free this season. An ounce of prevention is really worth a pound of cure; however, before you put your flu-prevention plan into action, make sure the methods included will actually do the   __  06  __  . We turned to health experts for advice on your best bets in fighting colds and flu. The following are some dos and don’ts.

    DOGet Flu Shots As Soon As Possible
    Getting vaccinated is your best line of defense, especially when the current batch of flu vaccines appear to have been matched well to what is actually going around. Don’t let the common myth that the flu shot can give you the flu    __  07  __   you back. Why? The vaccines are made from dead or inactive viruses that can no longer spread their fever-spiking properties; therefore, it’s impossible that you get the flu from your flu shot. In rare cases, a person may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, muscle pain, discomfort or weakness, but they typically   __  08  __   within two days.

    DON’T:Assume That the Vaccine is All You Need.
    Unfortunately, even after slapping a bandage on the injection site, you may only be about 60 percent   __  09  __  . This means you’re not guaranteed to be flu-free even though you’ve already had your shot. Some people may be exposed to the flu in the two weeks it takes for the vaccine to take   __  10  __  . Others may be infected by a strain not covered in the vaccine. As a result, you should also take other measures to make sure you stay healthy this season.

    A. trick B. hold C. effect D. circulated E. dissipate
    F. is G. protected H. declaring I. whatever J. given

    聽力請先下載擴充軟體:安裝方式說明
    Flu cases are reportedly skyrocketing. Hospitals in cities like Chicago and Boston are overwhelmed, with the latter declaring a public health emergency. Predominant in the air this year is an H3N2 virus associated with high numbers of hospitalizations and deaths. Since it hasn’t circulated for several years, it is likely to make lots of people sick. Given the severity of this year’s flu outbreak, it’s wise of you to do whatever is in your power to stay flu-free this season. An ounce of prevention is really worth a pound of cure; however, before you put your flu-prevention plan into action, make sure the methods included will actually do the trick. We turned to health experts for advice on your best bets in fighting colds and flu. The following are some dos and don’ts.

    DOGet Flu Shots As Soon As Possible
    Getting vaccinated is your best line of defense, especially when the current batch of flu vaccines appear to have been matched well to what is actually going around. Don’t let the common myth that the flu shot can give you the flu hold you back. Why? The vaccines are made from dead or inactive viruses that can no longer spread their fever-spiking properties; therefore, it’s impossible that you get the flu from your flu shot. In rare cases, a person may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, muscle pain, discomfort or weakness, but they typically dissipate within two days.

    DON’T:Assume That the Vaccine is All You Need.
    Unfortunately, even after slapping a bandage on the injection site, you may only be about 60 percent protected. This means you’re not guaranteed to be flu-free even though you’ve already had your shot. Some people may be exposed to the flu in the two weeks it takes for the vaccine to take effect. Others may be infected by a strain not covered in the vaccine. As a result, you should also take other measures to make sure you stay healthy this season.

    Q:With which of the following may the author agree?
    A. If you had the flu recently, you can’t get it again and thus don’t need to get the vaccine.
    B. The flu vaccine offers long-lasting protection; therefore, you can skip years between flu vaccinations.
    C. Though it takes two weeks for the vaccine’s protection to kick in, it’s still worth it for high risk groups such as the elderly and young children to get vaccinated.
    D. People have a tendency to not get vaccinated until they’re spooked by reports of how severe the flu season is panning out.

    建議做完聽力和閱讀後, 打開播放器, 跟著一起朗讀文章, 熟悉發音和語調。

    文意選填解答:
    1. H 2. D 3. F 4. J 5. I
    6. A 7. B 8. E 9. G 10. C
    1. 本題考點為:with + 受詞(名詞) + 受詞補語(形容詞)。受詞 the latter 指 Boston,Boston 可主動執行 declare 這動作,故用含主動進行意味的 Ving 形容詞。「Ving 或 p.p. 分詞當形容詞」的詳細解說請見 文法講座四。主要子句,with + N (受詞) + adj (受詞補語) 的用法請見 文法講座二十九
    2. 本題考點為「倒裝句」:地點 + 動詞 + 主詞。句型結構分析如下:

    Predominant in the air this year   __  02  __   an H3N2 virus
    [地點]                                       [動詞]    [主詞]
    主詞為單數的 an H3N2 virus,故須搭配單數的動詞,句中缺動詞,故應搭配  be 動詞,綜合以上單數 be 動詞 is 為正解。「倒裝句」的詳細解說請見 文法講座三十六

    3. 本句時態為「現在完成式」has + p.p.,故第3格為「過去分詞」p.p.。主詞 it 代替 an H3N2 virus,由此可知第 3 格應為和病毒主題相關的 p.p.,故選「傳播;散佈」( circulated )。 現在完成式相關解說請見 文法講座十八
    4. 第4格為「介係詞」,故後方才可搭配「名詞」the severity。從語意可推斷,「有鑒於」( given) 流感的嚴重性,採取預防措施是明智的。「given」的詳細解說請見 文法講座四十。  
    5. 句型結構分析如下:
    it    is wise of you to do   __  05  __   is in your power…
    [主詞] [動詞]                    [關代]   [動詞]
    兩個動詞代表有兩個句子,連接兩句可用關代。當發現關代前沒有先行詞(即沒有名詞)時,就得用「複合關係代名詞」,代替事物的複合關係代名詞有 what 和語氣比 what 更強的 whatever。「複合關係代名詞」的詳細解說請見 文法講座三。「whatever」的詳細解說請見 文法講座四十一
    6. 定冠詞 the 後方需搭配「名詞」,第 6 格為名詞。從文意可知,須確定這些預防措施能「成功」預防流感,片語「成功」do the trick。
    7. 7. 句型結構分析如下:
    Don’t let the common myth that the flu shot can give…   __  07  __   you
            [動詞] [受詞(迷思)] [補充說明迷思為何的受詞補語] [動詞原形]

    使役動詞 let 後須搭配「動詞原形」。從文意可知,別讓迷思「阻礙」你。片語「阻 礙;猶豫不決」hold back。「使役動詞」的詳細解說請見 文法講座二十二
    8. 主詞they 後方需搭配第 8 格「動詞」。又主詞 they 代替之前提過的名詞「像感冒的症狀」flu-like symptoms,故須搭配和感冒這主題相關的動詞,故選「消退」( dissipate )。
    9. 從 be 動詞可推知本句時態可能是「被動式」be + p.p.或「進行式」be + Ving。從文意可推論,你「被」疫苗「保護」,故第9格為被動式中的「過去分詞」protected。「被動式」的詳細解說請見文法講座十七
    10. 從文意可推知,注射疫苗,希望疫苗可「發揮效用」。片語「發揮效用」take effect。

    閱讀解答:C
    據報導,流感病例激增。如芝加哥及波士頓等大都市的醫院被流感病患塞爆,波士頓地區的醫院甚至發佈公眾健康警報。今年大規模流行的 H3N2 病毒和為數眾多的住院及死亡案例有關。由於 H3N2 病毒已數年未流行,故許多人接觸後恐生病。有鑒於今年流感大爆發,疫情嚴重,設法在這一季採取一切可行措施遠離流感是很明智的。雖說預防重於治療,但執行你的流感預防計畫前,務必確定計畫中每個項目都確實有效。向專家請益該如何對抗感冒和流感後,我們為你歸納出以下注意事項。

    務必儘快施打流感疫苗
    施打流感疫苗是你對抗流感的最佳防線,尤其當目前這批抗流感疫苗和流行的病毒類型相吻合時。別聽信「打流感疫苗反而會害你得流感」這常見迷思,而對施打疫苗躊躇不前。這又怎說呢?由於流感疫苗是由死掉或不活動的病毒所製成;這些病毒早失去了傳染及引發高燒的特質,因此你絕對不可能因施打流感疫苗而感冒。極罕見地,有些人可能在施打疫苗後出現如發燒、肌肉痠痛、渾身不舒服或沒力等類流感症狀,但這些症狀兩天內就可消除。

    切勿以為打了流感疫苗後就可高枕無憂
    很不幸地,即使打了流感疫苗,在施打處貼上繃帶後,你可能只受到 60% 的保護。這意味著施打疫苗不保證你可在流感季節中全身而退。有些人可能在等待流感疫苗發揮作用的兩星期內染上流感。有些人可能被未包含在流感疫苗內的其他流感病毒所感染。因此除施打疫苗外,這一季你應同時採取其他預防措施來維護自己的健康。

    問題:本文作者可能同意下列哪個說法?
    A. 若你最近得過流感,你就不可能再得,因此不需要打疫苗。
    B. 流感疫苗提供長期保護,所以可間隔多年再接種流感疫苗。
    C. 雖然流感疫苗兩星期後才可發揮防護力,但對老人及小孩等高風險族群而言,施打流感疫苗仍是值得的。
    D. 人們常在被流感肆虐的報導嚇著後,才會去施打流感疫苗。

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