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THERE’S A GIGANTIC DIAMOND IN OUTER SPACE!

Posted on
  • 2012-12-10
  • 科學家發現了一顆滿地是鑽石的星球。若往後我們能去那兒採鑽石,是否血鑽石的殘忍剝削可就此走入歷史?又或鑽石供給量突然變大,鑽石反而失去了保值的功能?

    《 鑽石星球—巨蟹座55 e —新聞報導 》

    字彙 Flashcards :使用說明
    • 精選多益 / 全民英檢中高級 / 托福單字片語
    planet (n) 行星
    surface (n) 表面
    litter (v) 亂丟
    precious (adj) 貴重的
    diamond (n) 鑽石
    dub (v) 命名;稱做
    55 Cancri e (n) 巨蟹座55e
    weigh (v) 秤重量
    observe (v) 觀察
    transit (v) 通過橫越
    orbit (n) 軌道;運行
    in contrast to N:和…相較之下
    perilously (adj) 危險地
    uninhabitable (adj) 無法居住的
    carbon (n) 碳
    condition (n) 狀況;條件
    make-up (n) 組成 = composition
    compose (v) 組成
    primarily (adv) 首要地;主要地
    graphite (n) 石墨
    iron (n) 鐵
    silicon carbide (n) 金剛砂
    speculate (v) 推測
    mass (n) 質量
    equivalent (n) 等量
    fiction (n) 小說
    amazing (adj) 驚人的
    evidence (n) 證據
    existence (n) 存在
    universe (n) 宇宙
    locate (v) 位於…;地處…
    gem-like (adj) 寶石般的
    visible (adj) 可見的
    naked eye:肉眼
    constellation (n) 星座
    distant (adj) 遙遠的
    similar (adj) 相似的
    even if:即使
    speed (n) 速度
    round trip (n) 來回旅行;雙程旅行
    single (adj) 單一的
    daydream (v) 做白日夢
    glittering (adj) 閃閃發亮的
    oasis (n) 綠洲;樂土
    support (v) 支持;維持


    Yale University scientists have discovered a planet    __1 __    surface is littered with precious diamonds. Dubbed 55 Cancri e, the rocky planet is twice the size of Earth but weighs eight times more, making it a “Super Earth.”

    First  __  2 __   transiting its parent star in 2011, 55 Cancri e makes a full orbit in just 18 hours, in   __ 3 __   to Earth’s 365 days. Since it’s perilously close in to its sun-like host star, surface temperatures reach an/ a  __  4  __  2,150 degrees Celsius. Extremely high temperatures, along with carbon, make perfect conditions for creating diamonds.

    Unlike Earth’s chemical make-up, 55 Cancri e has no water and is   __5 __   primarily of carbon (graphite and diamond), iron, and silicon carbide. Scientists speculate that about one third of the planet’s mass — the   __ 6  __  of the weight of three Earths — is pure diamond.

    Science fiction has dreamed of diamond planets for many years. Now it’s amazing that we finally have __   7 __   of its existence in the universe. Though located 40 light-year away from Earth, the gem-like planet is clearly __  8_    to the naked eye in the northern constellation Cancer.


    A. visible B. observed C. composed D. evidence  
    E. whose F. contrast G. equivalent H. uninhabitable  

    聽力請先下載擴充軟體:安裝方式說明
    Yale University scientists have discovered a planet whose surface is littered with precious diamonds. Dubbed 55 Cancri e, the rocky planet is twice the size of Earth but weighs eight times more, making it a “Super Earth.”

    First observed transiting its parent star in 2011, 55 Cancri e makes a full orbit in just 18 hours, in contrast to Earth’s 365 days. Since it’s perilously close in to its sun-like host star, surface temperatures reach an uninhabitable 2,150 degrees Celsius. Extremely high temperatures, along with carbon, make perfect conditions for creating diamonds.

    Unlike Earth’s chemical make-up, 55 Cancri e has no water and is composed primarily of carbon (graphite and diamond), iron, and silicon carbide. Scientists speculate that about one third of the planet’s mass — the equivalent of the weight of three Earths — is pure diamond.

    Science fiction has dreamed of diamond planets for many years. Now it’s amazing that we finally have evidence of its existence in the universe. Though located 40 light-year away from Earth, the gem-like planet is clearly visible to the naked eye in the northern constellation Cancer.

    QWith which statement would the author probably agree?
    A. Many distant planets have composition similar to that of Earth.
    B. Even if humans learn how to travel at the speed of light, the round trip to 55 Cancri e would take 40 years.
    C. A single year on 55 Cancri e takes more time than one of Earth’s days.
    D. Sadly for people who daydream of a glittering oasis, 55 Cancri e couldn’t support life.

    建議做完聽力和閱讀後, 打開播放器, 跟著一起朗讀文章, 熟悉發音和語調。
    文意選填解答:
    1. E 2. B 3. F 4. H  
    5. C 6. G 7. D 8. A  
    1. 句型結構分析如下:
    Yale University scientists have discovered a planet   1    surface  is littered
    [主詞1]              [動詞1]             [關代]  [主詞2]  [動詞2]
    兩個主詞,兩個動詞,代表兩個句子。連接兩句可用「關係代名詞」。從文意可知「星球的」表面有鑽石,故用「物所有格性質」的關代whose。 詳細解說請見 文法講座ㄧ
    2. 主詞 55 Cancri e 星球於 2011 年「被看見」,故寫分詞構句時,得用p.p.分詞 構句。詳細解說請見 文法講座八
    3. 介係詞 in 後方需搭配「名詞」。從文意可知以 55 Cancri e 公轉一圈(即一年)僅 18 小時和地球公轉一圈 365 天做「對比」(contrast)。片語「和…相較之下」: in contrast to N。
    4. 攝氏 2150 度為「名詞」,可見第4格為「形容詞」。 攝氏 2150 度溫度太高, 「無法住人」(uninhabitable)。
    5. 從文意可推知 carbon 和 iron 等為 55 Cancri e 的「組成」(composed) 元素。 詳細解說請見 文法講座十九
    6. 55 Cancri e 的質量為地球的 8 倍多,所以若它的 1/3 為鑽石,那麼它所擁有的鑽石質量就「等同於」(equivalent) 3個地球。
    7. 從第一及二段可知科學家已掌握 55 Cancri e 存在的「證據」(evidence)。
    8. 從帶轉折意味的連接詞 though 可知,「雖然」55 Cancri e 離我們 40 光年這麼遠,但仍肉眼「可見」(visible)。 關於 through 的用法,詳細解說請見 文法講座二十
       
       

    閱讀解答:D
    外太空有顆巨大的鑽石!

    耶魯大學的科學家們發現了一顆表面上散落著珍貴鑽石的行星。這顆名為巨蟹座55e的行星,大小為地球的兩倍,但重量卻達8倍以上,因此成了“超級地球”。

    這顆行星於2011年過境母恆星時首次被觀測到。相對於地球公轉一圈需365天,巨蟹座55e公轉一圈只需18小時。由於運行時,它非常接近類太陽的恆星,它的表面溫度到達不宜人居的攝氏2150度。極高溫加上碳成分高促成了鑽石生成的絕佳條件。

    巨蟹座55e和地球的化學組成不同。它沒有水,且主成分為碳(石墨和鑽石)、鐵和金剛砂。科學家們推測,巨蟹座55e質量的三分之一,相當於三個地球的重量,為純鑽石。

    多年來,科幻小說總幻像著鑽石行星的存在。神奇的是,我們終於有了鑽石星球在宇宙中存在的證據。雖然巨蟹座55e位於離地球40光年外的北方巨蟹座裡,但仍肉眼清晰可見。

    Q:作者可能會同意下列哪個說法?
    • A. 許多遙遠的行星,組成成份和地球相似。
    • B. 即使人類學會了以光速旅行,往返巨蟹座55e一趟,仍需耗時40年。
    • C. 巨蟹座55e上頭的一年比地球上的一天還長。
    • D. 對那些幻想著閃亮亮的鑽石天堂的人而言,很可惜地,巨蟹座55e無法住人。

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