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THE SECRET OF YOUR BODY CLOCK

Posted on
  • 2013-04-17
  • 引言:你是早睡早起的「雲雀」( lark ),還是越夜越美麗的「貓頭鷹」( owl ),亦或是時而早睡早起,時而晚睡晚起的「蜂鳥」( humming bird )?據研究,雲雀約占人口的 1/10,貓頭鷹占 3/10,而蜂鳥占 6/10。或許藉著了解最基本的生理時鐘運作模式,搭配聆聽自己身體的內在節奏,雲雀、貓頭鷹和蜂鳥都能調整步調,擁有更健康且充實的生活。

    影片:《生理時鐘的秘密》

    字彙 Flashcards :使用說明
    • 精選多益 / 全民英檢中高級 / 托福單字片語
    surfer (n) 衝浪者
    tide (n) 潮汐
    optimum (n) (adj) 最適宜(的)
    wave (n) 波浪
    shift (v) 改變
    temperature (n) 溫度
    sensitivity (n) 敏感
    alertness (n) 警戒;靈敏
    constant (adj) 不斷的
    flux (n) 變動
    chronobiology (n) 時間生物學
    internal (adj) 內在的
    organism (n) 有機體;微生物
    explore (v) 探索研究
    pacemaker (n) 調節器
    regulate (v) 調整
    circadiam rhythm (n) 晝夜節律
    release (n) (v) 釋放
    restoration (n) 恢復
    optimal (adj) 最佳的
    function (n) 功能作用
    ups and downs:起伏盛衰
    enhance (v) 提升
    performance (n) 表現
    memory (n) 記憶
    efficient (adj) 有效率的
    heed (n) 注意留心
    clot (v) 凝結;擁塞
    decrease (n) 減少
    stroke (n) 中風
    heart attack (n) 心臟病發
    verbal (adj) 言語的
    reason (v) 推理思考
    gradually (adv) 逐漸地
    peak (v) 達到高峰 (n) 高峰頂點
    sharp (adj) 敏銳的
    cognitive (adj) 認知的
    require (v) 需要
    juggle (v) 盡力同時兼顧
    figure (n) 數字
    roughly (adv) 大致上
    heavy lifting (n) 困難的工作 = task
    memorize (v) 背誦記憶
    brilliant (adj) 出色的
    brainstorm (v) 集思廣益
    analyze (v) 分析
    financial (adj) 財務金融的
    projection (n) 預估
    schedule (v) 安排
    critical (adj) 重要的
    motivate (v) 激發
    challenging (adj) 具挑戰性的
    reward (n) 報酬
    worth (adj) 值得的
    strenuous (adj) 費力的
    tackle (v) 處理
    stress (n) 壓力
    decline (v) 下降衰退
    drowsiness (n) 睡意
    daydream (n) 白日夢
    lapse (n) 閃失
    coordination (n) 協調
    reaction (n) 反應
    stimulus (n) 刺激
    strength (n) 力量
    cardio-respiratory (adj) 心肺的
    perceive (v) 察覺
    workout (n) 健身
    fatiguing (adj) 疲憊的
    keen (adj) 敏銳的
    general (adj) 大致上的
    pattern (n) 模式
    exact (adj) 確切的
    vary (v) 變化不同
    beat (n) 節拍
    pace (n) 步調
    infer (v) 推論
    extreme (adj) 極端的
    maintain (v) 保持
    track (n) 追蹤
    bright (adj) 明亮的
    irritate (v) 刺激
    sensory (adj) 感官的
    perception (n) 知覺
    burn the midnight oil:熬夜
    wee (adj) 很早的


    Why do surfers pay so much attention to the daily changes in the tides? They are trying to find the optimum time to catch the best waves. Within your body, there are also “waves” that shift throughout the day. Your body temperature, your sensitivity to taste and smell and your alertness,  __  01  __  , are all in constant flux.

    Chronobiology is the study of internal biological clocks  __  02  __   in all living organisms. It explores the daily, monthly, and annual biological cycles that act as internal pacemakers to regulate everything  __  03  __  hunger to sleep, mood, mental and physical alertness. An important time cycle in this field is the circadian rhythm—the 24-hour sleep-wake cycle that allows the release of hormones, restoration of energy and optimal body functions.  __  04  __   studying the circadian rhythm, you can time-shift your daily activities for the best-fit with your ups and downs and  __  05  __   enhance your performance at work and play.

    Research shows that our short-term memory is best during early morning hours—   __  06  __  , 15% more efficient than at any other time of the day. So, students, take heed: it really does  __  07  __   to review your notes right before the morning test is given. However, morning isn’t the best time of the day to exercise. Due to an increase in the blood’s clotting ability and a decrease in blood flow to the brain and heart, this is the most  __  08  __   time for a stroke or a heart attack.

    Our long-term memory, mental alertness and verbal reasoning abilities gradually increase from 9 am and  __  09  __   around noon. Since we are at our sharpest mentally, we tend to do best on cognitive tasks that require the juggling of words and figures. Therefore, roughly from 9 am to 3 pm, you would be wise to do the mental “heavy lifting” such as writing and memorizing a brilliant speech, brainstorming new projects, analyzing the financial projections, and scheduling a critical meeting. Don’t be surprised if you find  __  10  __   difficult to motivate yourself to do the challenging tasks first. In a way, it’s against human nature but the rewards are  __  11  __   the effort-strenuous jobs will be tackled more effectively and with less stress. Alertness   __  12  __   while drowsiness, daydreams, and lapses in concentration set in around 3 pm.

    During the late afternoon or early evening, our coordination is at its peak. It’s a great time for physical exercise because we have high body temperature, the fastest   __  13  __   to an outside stimulus, and the greatest muscle strength and cardio-respiratory efficiency. You’ll  __  14  __   a physical workout as easier and less fatiguing. Also, all our senses— taste, sight, hearing, smell, and touch—are the keenest during early evening, which explains  __  15  __   dinner usually tastes better than any other meal.

    While all of us follow the same general patterns of ups and downs, the exact timing varies from person to person. Be sensitive to the inner beats of your body. Let them set the pace of your day and you’ll live a healthier, happier life.


    A. by B. likely C. peak D. pay E. worth
    F. from G. it H. for example I. perceive J. thus
    K. in fact L. reaction M. why N. declines O. found

    聽力請先下載擴充軟體:安裝方式說明
    Why do surfers pay so much attention to the daily changes in the tides? They are trying to find the optimum time to catch the best waves. Within your body, there are also “waves” that shift throughout the day. Your body temperature, your sensitivity to taste and smell and your alertness, for example, are all in constant flux.

    Chronobiology is the study of internal biological clocks found in all living organisms. It explores the daily, monthly, and annual biological cycles that act as internal pacemakers to regulate everything from hunger to sleep, mood, mental and physical alertness. An important time cycle in this field is the circadian rhythm—the 24-hour sleep-wake cycle that allows the release of hormones, restoration of energy and optimal body functions. By studying the circadian rhythm, you can time-shift your daily activities for the best-fit with your ups and downs and thus enhance your performance at work and play.

    Research shows that our short-term memory is best during early morning hours—in fact, 15% more efficient than at any other time of the day. So, students, take heed: it really does pay to review your notes right before the morning test is given. However, morning isn’t the best time of the day to exercise. Due to an increase in the blood’s clotting ability and a decrease in blood flow to the brain and heart, this is the most likely time for a stroke or a heart attack.

    Our long-term memory, mental alertness and verbal reasoning abilities gradually increase from 9 am and peak around noon. Since we are at our sharpest mentally, we tend to do best on cognitive tasks that require the juggling of words and figures. Therefore, roughly from 9 am to 3 pm, you would be wise to do the mental “heavy lifting” such as writing and memorizing a brilliant speech, brainstorming new projects, analyzing the financial projections, and scheduling a critical meeting. Don’t be surprised if you find it difficult to motivate yourself to do the challenging tasks first. In a way, it’s against human nature but the rewards are worth the effort-strenuous jobs will be tackled more effectively and with less stress. Alertness declines while drowsiness, daydreams, and lapses in concentration set in around 3 pm.

    During the late afternoon or early evening, our coordination is at its peak. It’s a great time for physical exercise because we have high body temperature, the fastest reaction to an outside stimulus, and the greatest muscle strength and cardio-respiratory efficiency. You’ll perceive a physical workout as easier and less fatiguing. Also, all our senses— taste, sight, hearing, smell, and touch—are the keenest during early evening, which explains why dinner usually tastes better than any other meal.

    While all of us follow the same general patterns of ups and downs, the exact timing varies from person to person. Be sensitive to the inner beats of your body. Let them set the pace of your day and you’ll live a healthier, happier life.


    Q:What can readers best infer from this article?
    (A) An extreme morning person and an extreme night person have the same circadian cycles.
    (B) Keeping a daily diary of physical and mental changes helps you maintain track of  your circadian rhythm.
    (C) Bright light irritates you most around noon because it’s the time of the day when your sensory perception is the keenest.
    (D) You memorize better while burning the midnight oil because your long-term memory is better during the wee hours of the morning.


    建議做完聽力和閱讀後, 打開播放器, 跟著一起朗讀文章, 熟悉發音和語調。
    文意選填解答:
    1. H 2. O 3. F 4. A 5. J
    6. K 7. D 8. B 9. C 10. G
    11. E 12. N 13. C 14. I 15. M
    1. 第一段第三行點出「在你體內也有隨時間變化的 “每日潮汐”」,第四行提及的「體溫」、「味覺和嗅覺敏感度」等都是隨時間不同變動的「例子」,故選片語「比如說」for example。
    2. 句子結構分析如下:
    Chronobiology   is   the study of internal biological clocks  _________
    [主詞]    [動詞]     [名詞]    [形容詞]  
    第2格和名詞clocks有關,應為「形容詞」。又生理時鐘 (biological clocks) 可在生物體 (living organism) 內「被找到」,故用具備「被動」意味的過去分詞 (p.p.) 當形容詞。「分詞當形容詞」的相關解說請見 文法講座四
    3. 本題考點為「從…到…」:from 名詞 1 to 名詞 2
    4. 「介係詞」後才可搭配 Ving,故第4格為「介係詞」。從文意可推知,「藉著」研究晝夜節律,你可依身體狀況的高低點調節每日行程。by + Ving 意指「藉著做…,達成…目標」。詳細用法解說請見 文法講座四十六
    5. 第 5 格和動詞 enhance 有關,應為「副詞」。前一句:妥善調節每日行程,和後一句:提高工作和娛樂表現,兩句間有因果關係,故選「副詞」因此 ( thus )。
    6. 第 5 格前一句提到:我們的短期記憶在清晨達到高峰,後一句利用數據15%「補充說明」清晨時的短期記憶比其他時段好多少。補充陳述細節可用片語「實際上」 in fact。
    7. 本題考點為「做…是值得的」句型:It pays ( paid ) to 動詞原形,詳細說明請見 文法講座四十七。從文意可知,短期記憶在清晨達到高峰,所以晨考前複習筆記是值得的。第七格為 pay。
    8. 「名詞」 time 前方的第 8 格應為「形容詞」。從文意可知,凝血能力增加,加上血液回流量減少,「可能」( likely ) 引發中風。likely 的相關用法請見 文法講座四十三
    9. 連接詞 and 兩側須連接時態對等的動詞,故第 9 格為「現在式動詞」。從第四段第四行可知:早上九點到下午三點,心思較敏捷。長期記憶等等從九點開始增強,到中午「達高峰」,之後漸漸消減,三點後,開始精神不濟,想打瞌睡。故第 9 格 應填 peak。
    10. 本題考點為「find + O + OC」句型,當中受詞為 it,補充說明 it 代名詞代替哪件事需 用「不定詞」,即「to 動詞原形」。「find + O + OC」句型詳細解說請見 文法講座三十四
    句子結構分析如下:
    find it   difficult   to motivate yourself
    [受詞]    [受詞補語]    [補充說明代名詞 it 代替那件事]           
    11. 從文意可知,早上 9 點到下午 3 點心思敏捷,從挑戰性高的工作做起,事半功倍,一切努力都是「值得的」( worth )。相關解說請見 文法講座四十七
    12. 單數主詞 alertness 後應接第三人稱單數的現在式動詞。從關鍵字 drowsiness 和 daydreams 可推知敏捷度「衰退」,故填入 declines。
    13. 「形容詞」fastest 後方應填入「名詞」,第 13 格為名詞。從關鍵字 stimulus 可推知,有刺激就會有「反應」,故填入 reaction。
    14. 助動詞 will 後方應搭配「動詞原形」,第 14 格為動詞原形。本題考點為「把 A 看成 B」:perceive A as B。「把 A 看成 B」相關用法請見 文法講座二十三
    15. 從關鍵字explain可推測,解釋某個「問題」,故應搭配「間接問句」。「間接問句」的公式為:疑問詞 + 主詞 + 動詞,故第15格應填入「疑問詞」why。「間接問句」相關解說請見 文法講座十六

    閱讀解答:B
    為什麼衝浪者如此留意每日潮汐變化呢?其實他們正試著找出最佳浪點。在你體內也有隨時間變化的 “每日潮汐”,例如:你的體溫、味覺和嗅覺敏感度、和敏捷度都一直不停地波動變化。

    時間生物學就是一門研究所有生物體內生理時鐘的科學。它探討了每日、每月和每年的生物週期。這些週期形同生物體內的調節器,負責管控從飢餓到睡眠、情緒,身心敏捷度等大小事。這領域中一重要的週期便是晝夜節律,即一天24小時的睡眠和清醒週期。它促成賀爾蒙的釋放、能量的修復,使身體運作達最佳狀態。藉研究晝夜節律,你可依身體狀況的高低點調節每日行程,藉此提高工作和娛樂表現。

    研究顯示,我們的短期記憶在清晨達到高峰;實際上,早晨短期記憶運作效率較一天其他時段高出15%。因此,同學們注意了:這證明晨間考試前複習筆記是值得的。但早晨並非運動的最佳時機。因此時凝血能力增高,同時流往腦部的血流量減少,所以早晨也是中風和心臟病的好發期。

    我們的長期記憶、心智靈敏度、和語言邏輯論述能力從早上九點開始漸漸增強,到中午左右達到高峰。由於此時心思最敏捷,我們往往可在需斟酌搬弄字句和數據的認知工作上表現出色。因此,大約從早上九點到下午三點,專注在如寫作和背誦精彩演講稿、構思新案子、分析財務預算和安排重要會議等耗費心力的工作上,對你而言是很明智的。若發現難以激起率先挑戰艱困工作的動力也別驚訝。某種程度上,這麼做的確違背人性,但之後的回報將讓你覺得一切努力沒有白費。艱困的工作將在壓力較小的狀況下有效率地迎刃而解。下午三點左右,敏捷度下滑。瞌睡蟲、白日夢取而代之。

    午後近黃昏,我們的協調力達到高峰。這時是運動的最佳時機,因在體溫最高的狀態下,我們對外在刺激反應最快,肌力最強,心肺功能也最棒。你將發現體能訓練變得較輕鬆,不那麼疲累。同時,我們的感官—味覺、視覺、聽覺、嗅覺和觸覺—近黃昏時最敏銳,這恰好說明了為何晚餐嚐起來比其他正餐來得美味。

    雖然我們的身體大致上都遵守相同的起落變化,但確切的變化時間因人而異。請留意你身體的內在節奏。讓它們設定你白天的步調,你便能過著更健康快樂的生活。

    閱讀測驗:
    問題:讀者可從這篇文章中推論出下列何者?
    (A) 早起的人和夜貓子有一樣的晝夜節律。
    (B) 記下每日身心變化可幫助你追蹤自己的晝夜節律。
    (C) 中午時刻,強光最顯刺眼,因此時你的感官處於一天中最敏銳的狀態。
    (D) 開夜車時你的記憶力特別好,因為長期記憶在凌晨時分最靈光。


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